back to homepage

Biotran – Industrial wastes

WASTEMANTECH project

Training module

Industrial wastes

This project has been funded with support from the European Commission.

This publication reflects the author, and the Commission is not responsible for any use that may be made of the information contained therein.

INDEX

1. Introduction 3

2. Industrial wastes legislation 5

2.1. European legislation: The waste hierarchy. 5

2.2. Spanish legislation: Towards the prevention of wastes. 6

3. Industrial Wastes in Spain. 8

3.1. Definition. 8

3.2. Categories. 8

3.3. Management. 10

3.3.1. Wastes’ identification. 10

3.3.2. Wastes’ characterisation. 11

3.3.3. Codification and wastes labelling 13

3.3.4. Packaging and storage of waste 16

3.3.5. Shipments waste procedure. 17

3.3.6. Industrial wastes’ treatment. 19

4. Good practices managing industrial wastes. 21

5. Conclusions – Figures 23

6. References 25

Introduction

Industrial activities as well as the introduction of novices’ substances in production processes mean a negative impact in the environment. Consequences of the industrialisation are well known: climate change, ozone destruction, biodiversity lost, air, water and soil contamination, among others.

Managing the growing quantity of wastes, as a consequence of human activity in general and the industrial sector in particular, is one of the biggest challenges nowadays.

In this context it’s needed a holistic management of wastes in the place where are produced. That wastes management it’s not just a legal mandatory but also a way of reducing environmental impact. Implementing efficient management procedures of wastes in the origin a real sustainable development could be reached.

Waste treatment is been increased year by year in the European Union, but still is much work to do to reach acceptable levels.

Figure 1. Development of waste treatment in the EU-27, 2004 – 2010. (million tonnes)

The current training module was written to show the real scenario about management of industrial wastes is Spain. From the legal basis to the real procedures used nowadays managing wastes will be analysed in the following pages.

In order to put in context the current situation of industrial wastes in the EU and neighbourhood countries we will analyse the waste generation by economic activity.

Figure 2. Waste generation by economic activity, 2010 (1.000 tonnes)

Industrial wastes legislation

European legislation: The waste hierarchy.

Legal framework for treating waste in the European Union (EU) is focused in prevention, control and proper management. Due to the importance of industrial sector across Europe, the EU legislation tends to provide a holistic regulation focused on the reduction of industrial wastes.

Within this purpose the legal framework is designed to protect the environment and human health by emphasising the importance of proper waste management, recovery and recycling techniques to reduce pressure on resources and improve their use.

Legal framework for treating waste in the European Union (EU) (see the Annex I with the complete legislation references) could be summarized in the following key points:

  • The legislation establishes a waste hierarchy: prevention, re-use, recycling, recovery for other purposes such as energy and disposal.

http://www.acceleratio.eu/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/Waste_Hierarchy.gif

Figure 3. The waste hierarchy stablished by the EU waste management legislation.[1]

  • It confirms the ‘polluter pays principle’ whereby the original waste producer must pay for the costs of waste management.
  • It introduces the concept of ‘extended producer responsibility’. This may include an onus on manufacturers to accept and dispose of products returned after use.
  • It makes a distinction between waste and by-products[2].
  • Waste management must be carried out without any risk to water, air, soil, plants or animals, without causing a nuisance through noise or smells, or harming the countryside or places of special interest.
  • Producers or holders of waste must treat it themselves or have it handled by an officially recognised operator. They require a permit and are inspected periodically.
  • Competent national authorities must establish waste management plans and waste prevention programmes.
  • Special conditions apply to hazardous waste, waste oils and bio-waste.
  • It introduces recycling and recovery targets to be achieved by 2020 for household waste (50 %) and construction and demolition waste (70 %).
  • The legislation does not cover certain types of waste such as radioactive elements, decommissioned explosives, faecal matter, waste waters and animal carcasses.

Spanish legislation: Towards the prevention of wastes.

Waste prevention is the main topic in European and national legislation since it’s considered as the most effective measure optimizing the use of resources as well as considering the environmental impact.

The European waste directive framework stablishes the base for EU countries member to implement waste prevention through their national laws. The final EU purpose is to disjoin economic growth and increasing waste generation.

Under this context the Spanish Government published the law “22/2011 of 22 of July” about wastes and contaminated soils. This law makes reference to the EU directive framework and therefore stablish some waste prevention objectives as well as reduction of dangerous or polluting substances.

Wastes prevention measures should be understand under a holistic approach on the following topics:

  • Industrial design, production and distribution.
  • Consumption.
  • Reduction of damaging substances content.
  • Minimisation of the human health as well as the environmental impact.

Prevention of wastes is not just related to environmental impact but also the economic. Companies implementing effective waste production programmes can reduce their consumption of raw materials as well as decrease the cost of waste management. That means an increasing profitability in the company.

Furthermore, waste prevention activities generate new business opportunities. Activities linked with valorisation and management of wastes generates employment in SMEs and self-employment worker employed on this sector.

The Spanish Programme for waste prevention 2014-2020 develops waste prevention measures aligned with European legislation. The objective of this programme is the reduction of generated wastes in a 10% for 2020 (taking as a basis the wastes generated in 2010). The document makes an analysis of the current waste prevention measures and their effectivity. The configuration on the programme is based in 4 main pillars:

  • wastes reduction,
  • reutilisation and life extension of products,
  • reduction of damaging substances content in materials and products, and
  • reduction of adverse impact in human health as well as environment.

Each pillar identifies the priority sectors in which prevention measures should be undertaken. Proposed prevention measured has been demonstrated as the most effective ones in each sector. All the measured are described in the annex IV of the national law (Measures to establish the framework for waste generation, to the phase of design, production and distribution of products, and the consumption and use phase.). The implementation of the prevention measures take into account the following stakeholders:

  • industrial companies,
  • distributors and final users, and
  • Public Administrations.

Furthermore, the programmar foresees a biennial evaluation of their results through a series of indicators.

In the attached Annex II of this document a list of the Spanish legislation on waste can be found. However we have to take into account that the environment competencies belong to each region, so each of them can have more restrictive regulations.

Industrial Wastes in Spain.

Definition.

Talking about wastes we have to take into account the meaning of the word in the current society. The meanings of the word have changed over the time and even nowadays are difficult to differentiate the concept of sub-product and waste in the industrial context.

According OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) waste definition is “Waste refers to materials that are not prime products (that is, products produced for the market) for which the generator has no further use in terms of his/her own purposes of production, transformation or consumption, and of which he/she wants to dispose”. In that definition we can appreciate the difficulty stabilising a differentiation between sub-product and waste.

According to the Spanish regulation about wastes and contaminated soils (Law 22/2011 of 28 July) waste definition is: any substance or object which the holder disposes of or intends or obligation to discard.

In any case, wastes are the ones included in the LER codes list, mentioned in the European List of Waste (Commission Decision 2000/532/EC[3]) and in the Annex III to Directive 2008/98/EC[4].

The mentioned List of Waste has been adopted through the Orden MAM/304/2002, de 8 de febrero de 2002, from the Environment Ministry[5]. In this classification the concept and hazardous and non-hazardous wastes are described.

More in concrete industrial wastes are defined by the Spanish law as waste resulting from the manufacturing, processing, utilization, consumption, cleaning or maintenance generated by industrial activity, excluding emissions regulated by Law 34/2007, of 15 November.

Categories.

Many different categories could be stablished for wastes. Criteria like physical, chemical composition, danger, activity in which was generated, etc. could be used. According to the activity in which was generated could be also classified as: urban or municipal, agricultural, livestock, forestry, health, commercial, industrial.

This training module is focused on industrial waste, so stabilising them as our focus this classification shall be based on the obligations, since the current legal framework in Spain, involves managing different types of industrial waste, it is fundamentally based on the criteria of dangerousness of them:

Waste similar to urban waste: Those who come from the industry but which are similar to municipal waste composition. These wastes are collected and treated like urban wastes. Some examples are: wastes from canteens, office trash, paper, cardboard, plastics, textiles, wood, rubber, etc.

Non-hazardous waste: containers and packaging that have contained dangerous waste as described in the European List of Waste from the Waste Framework Directive.

An important non dangerous waste due to its volume of generation is inert waste. Inert wastes do not experience significant physical, chemical or biological transformations due to their low reactivity. That means that dumping sites for inert wastes have less restrictive rules comparing with the rest of wastes.

Some example of inert wastes are: construction and demolition waste, gravel, sand, debris removal certain mines, etc.

Hazardous waste: wastes as well as containers and packaging of wastes listed in the European List of Waste from the Waste Framework Directive.

Furthermore a waste could be considered as hazardous waste in future which may be approved by the state government as stipulated in European legislation, or in international agreements in which Spain participates (oils, used batteries, used batteries, paints, solvents, etc.). These substances, due to their chemical composition and their characteristics (flammability, toxicity, chemical reactivity, etc.) are hazardous to health and / or the environment and require special consideration, both in terms of document management and treatment.

Reclassification of hazardous waste as non-hazardous waste may not be achieved by diluting or mixing. Practices that aim to low the initial concentrations of hazardous substances below the limits that define the character of dangerous waste are strictly prohibited.

Management.

The Spanish Law 22/2011 of 28 July stablish the definition of waste management as “the collection, transport and treatment of waste, including the supervision of such operations and the after-care of disposal sites, and including actions taken as a dealer or agent”.

Activities that a waste manager has to perform to fulfil according to the waste management definition are described below:

Wastes’ identification.

The first step for proper management of industrial waste is to identify each of them. Within this purpose it is necessary to carry out a comprehensive study of all processes that make up the company’s business, in order to determine the waste generated in each. To sum up this process we answer the following following questions:

  • Which kind of waste we produce?
  • In which process is each waste derivate?
  • Where are the wastes generated?
  • In which quantity are the wastes produced?

Waste generated continuously as those generated on a seasonal basis should be both taken into account.

This information will produce a Waste Inventory that shows clearly the amount and characteristics of the waste generated. This inventory will include information about the name of the waste, quantity, nature, origin, destination, transport in the displacement and most appropriate treatment method.

An example of waste inventory, collected in tabular form to facilitate access to data and its follow-up.

Table 1. Waste inventory example table.

Name Precedence Composition Quantity Origen Way of transport Waste manager Final treatment

Nombre Cantidad Naturaleza Origen Destino Transporte

Wastes’ characterisation.

Once the different wastes generated are identified, the next step is to determine the properties and physicochemical characteristics in order to choose the best management option according to the existing regulation.

There are several tools for characterizing waste which should be used as an alternative or complementary manner:

  • Codification according to the European List of Waste.

This List of 400 wastes identifies different options according to their type and activity of origin. Hazardous wastes are marked with and asterisk (*).

Figure 4.Examples of codification according to the European List of Waste.[6]

  • Safety Data Sheet of the products from which the waste is generated.

It is a very useful document that provides information on the hazardous characteristics of a substance and therefore of the waste generated. If the preparation or substance has at least one symbol of danger, the residue can be dangerous. However, the hazard characteristics of the substance or preparation, its concentration in the residue and the nature of the associated risks, ultimately determine whether the generated waste is hazardous or not. If the MSDS does not indicate that the substance or preparation is dangerous, the residue of that product will not be either.

Regulation 1357/2014 of 18 December 2014 establishing the 14 categories of risk (HP) existing and establishes the method for determining whether the residue has no such feature.

Table 2. Hazardous categories table

  • Analytical characterization of the waste by a certified external laboratory

Within the characterization we measure those parameters that give us information on both the physical and chemical characteristics (pH, flash point, solubility, conductivity, etc.) and the possible existence of hazardous substances and concentrations thereof (heavy metals, halogen content, volatile substances, PCBs, etc.).

These three tools mentioned are complementary and there is no predetermined order for use. Depending on the complexity and residue resort to either or both simultaneously.

Figure 5.Examples of codification according to the European List of Waste.[7]

Codification and wastes labelling

Once that the identification and characterization are done, the company should proceed with the codification and labelling of the wastes in accordance with current regulations.

In this phase we have to take into account the main classifications of wastes in hazardous and non-hazardous.

HAZARDOUS WASTES.

Hazardous wastes have a double identification coding:

  1. European coding: based on the List of Waste from the Waste Framework Directive.
  2. National coding: based on the codes mentioned in the RD833/1988, RD952/1997 and the Reglament (UE) 1357/2014. This encoding is defined by combinations of letters and numbers seven tables, information about why waste generation, fitness, nature, composition, danger and industrial process and where it is generated.

Figure 6. Waste codification table.[8]

Furthermore this coding is done based on the current legal framework (RD833/98 and Regulation 1272/2008) that contains information about the data, dimensions and pictograms to comply with the labelling of the type of waste collected.

Figure 7. Hazardous waste label.[9]

Rrgarding the hazardous wastes generation by Kg per inhabitant we can see a different evolution in the target countries of the project. In Spain and France the generation is more or less constan while in Turkey has increased more than 400%. In the opposite site in Romania the hazardous wastes generation has decreased to 1/3 respect the data of 2004.

Figure 8. Hazardous wastes generation, 2004 and 2010 (Kg per inhabitant).

NON-HAZARDOUS WASTES.

These wastes are coded according to the List of Waste from the Waste Framework Directive[10]. This regulation doesn’t establish any especial fulfilment regarding the waste labelling.

Packaging and storage of waste

First of all we have to select the type of containers according with the frequency and quantity of generation. This information could be obtained analysing the results from the wastes’ identification phase. It’s crucial to perform an accuracy analysis of the quantity and frequency which the wastes are generated in order increase the efficiency (and therefore the cost) of the containers use. Furthermore we have to take into account that the containers of hazardous wastes are also considered as hazardous wastes, consequently an optimization of the wastes generation could reduce the price of processing dramatically.

When selecting waste containers we must observe certain safety standards. Receptacles and their closures must be designed and constructed so as to avoid any loss of contents. They must resist the manipulations to which they are to be submitted, discarding those structural faults or visible leaks.

When the waste is also considered as dangerous waste in the context of the European Agreement concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road, it shall comply with the specific regulations.

Storage areas containing waste should comply with specific technical standards that are applicable, such as the rules of chemical storage (APQ standards), standards storage of hazardous materials (Seveso standards), etc. Therefore, as it was mentioned previously, it’s crucial to do a correct inventory of waste.

In any case, both the packaging and storage of waste will be such that no heat generation, explosion, ignitions, or reactions that produce effects entailing increased danger or difficulty in their management occurs.

The storage can be done both indoors and outdoors, as long as it attends general recommendations:

  • Areas identified and removed from the sewage, production areas and warehouses for raw materials and finished product storage.
  • Signalling the location of each waste and its associated risks and hazardous characteristics if any.
  • A rain covered with soil cement or concrete to prevent seepage and bund / curb retention of sufficient height to contain a possible spill to the ground.
  • Closed or fenced to avoid passing or unauthorized outsider.
  • With safety equipment for emergencies (fire extinguishers, absorbent spill …).

Storage time for hazardous waste may not exceed six months unless a specific permission is get from the Competent Environmental Authority.

Shipments waste procedure.

DOCUMENT OF ACCEPTANCE.

Prior to the transfer of waste from the place of origin to a facility management (transfer center, recovery or disposal), it must have an industrial paper acceptance by an authorized agent.

For this document, the producer must send to the waste manager a request for acceptance of the waste, indicating same data (such as: description, identification code, physico-chemical properties, composition, estimated amount, frequency production and packaging in which it is located). However, the waste manager may request such additional information as it deems appropriate (including sending representative sample) in order to study the request acceptance.

When the waste is accepted the supplier shall document it as proof of compliance. This document will collect basic data of the producer, waste treatment manager and will be unique to CDA type of waste. If the waste is not acceptable, you will be notified in writing, stating the reasons for such decisions.

In the case of hazardous waste, the deadline for replying to the admissibility of the manager is one month after receiving the application for admission document.

PREVIUS NOTIFICATION TO THE WASTE TRANSFER

The transfer of any hazardous overall residue, of waste that are destined for disposal or recovery by incineration (whether or not dangerous) as well as mixed household waste (code LER 20301) which are intended for disposal, is subject to a system of notification to the relevant environmental authorities. Such notification shall be made by the waste producer or by a representative on their behalf and must be made with at least 10 days before the date of transfer during which time these bodies may refuse giving the reasons pleaded or request additional information on it. Failure to reply within that period, shall be deemed satisfactory and the transfer may take place.

Such notification basically collects data on:

  • Origin (production center).
  • Destination (center manager where they are sent).
  • Waste (nature, coding, quantity, conditioning, acceptance number of manager).
  • Shipping date.
  • Carrier.
  • Itinerary.

WASTE SHIPMENTS

All transportation will be done following the current regulations for health and safety at work. According to that the staff working on the waste shipments will wear all the necessary personal protective equipment (goggles, gloves, boots, overalls, dust mask / filter gases, etc.).

Each shipment shall be accompanied by the necessary documentation depending on the type of waste managed, and consisting of:

  • In the case of hazardous waste: Control and monitoring documents, waybill and safety data sheet (the latter two in the event that the goods are subject to ADR[11]).
  • In the case of non-hazardous waste: goods dispatch order in which the information on the nature of the goods loaded and output data is collected and destination.

The Control and Monitoring Document (DCS) is a document that must accompany compulsorily hazardous waste during shipment of them. DCS is the instrument to monitor such waste from its origin to its destination, so that allowing adequate traceability. Its main function is to control the process of ownership transfer of hazardous waste between the center of origin (producer or handler) and the target center (waste manager). With DCS the ownership and responsibility of the waste are clearly identified during all the shipment process.

The DCS collects the necessary data for the transfer of ownership (center of origin, transportation company vehicle and destination center) as well as the waste traceability (nature, quantity, final treatment, etc.), are perfectly defined. This document should be signed by both parties once the transfer of ownership of the waste was done. A copy should be send to the competent environmental authority.

In the case that the waste is not accepted for the waste manager the deny cause should be included in the DCS and reported to the competent authority.

Regarding international shipment a previous authorization from all the involved countries has to be obtained. The shipment should be done according to the regulations of the EC Regulation Nº1013 / 2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 14 June 2006 concerning shipments of waste.

Industrial wastes’ treatment.

Industrial wastes’ treatment includes two main phases: Recovery and disposal. Booth phases will be described in the following lines. However we have to take into account the current regulatory framework (hierarchy of waste treatment) recovery must be always the first option over disposal.

RECOVERY TRATMENT

Recovery treatments include those procedures that take advantage of the resources contained in waste. Some of them are the operations of reuse, recycling and energy recovery that take place outside the workplace.

Recovery treatments should be done under controlled condition without endangering human health and without using methods which could harm the environment. Under the Spanish regulation (Annex II of the Law 20/2011 on Waste and Contaminated Land) there is a non-exhaustive list of recovery operations.

Main recovery treatment could be grouped into two main categories:

  • Material recovery: It is based on the use of any of the components present in the waste treatments.
  • Energy recovery: oriented to take advantage of the calorific content of the waste.

The different recovery processes are not mutually exclusive. It is common to apply several recovery treatments on the same waste in order to obtain a better result. Physicochemical characteristics of the waste as well as the existing technology will determine the use of one or several treatments. Environmental, social and economic benefit of the recovery will be also determine the use of the recovery treatment

Some of the most widely used recovery treatments are:

    • Solvents recovery.
    • Oils regeneration.
    • Packaging recovery.
    • Energy recovery.

DISPOSAL TREATMENTS

Disposal treatments definition according to the Spanish Law 20/2011 on Waste and Contaminated Land is: “any operation which is not recovery even where the operation has as a secondary consequence the reclamation of substances or energy”. In the appendix I of the mentioned law there is a non-exhaustive list of disposal treatment.

Disposal treatments are focused at waste disposal or its total or partial destruction by methods that do not endanger human health or cause damage to the environment. Some of these treatments are: waste incineration without energy recovery and landfill deposition.

Some of the most widely used treatments for industrial waste disposal are:

  • Physico-chemical treatments.
    • Separation techniques.
    • Stabilization.
  • Biological treatments.
    • Aerobic treatments.
  • Activated sludge.
  • Bacterial beds.
  • System bio-discs.
    • Anaerobic treatments.
    • Mixed treatments.
  • Heat treatments.
    • Incineration.
    • Gasification.
    • Pyrolysis.
    • Other heat treatment techniques are:
  • Argon Plasma arc: applying a strong electric shock an inert gas atmosphere.
  • Arch AC: passing a direct or alternating through a gas between electrodes electric current.
  • Plasma inductively coupled radio frequency (ICRF): applying a magnetic field electrodeless radiofrequency
  • Microwave Plasma: by generating microwave.
  • Disposal in landfills.

Good practices managing industrial wastes.

There are several possibilities for proper management of industrial waste. An increasingly common method is based on the use of byproducts bags. Its main advantage is classification of waste to be offered as a raw material for other companies.

Byproducts bags are part of EU environmental philosophy that encourages reuse and recycling of waste by connecting companies with different raw materials need in their production processes. This method works with a registration of the waste producer as an offered as well as the final company using the waste as a claimant. The channel of communication created within this porpoise will facilitate the exchange of products.

Objectives and advantages using byproducts bags are:

  • Promoting environmental protection and better management of waste.
  • Making waste and prevent them from being deleted.
  • Reduce the cost of waste treatment.
  • Reduce manufacturing costs in those companies whose raw materials could be met using byproducts.

The environmental problems generated by industrial waste are not only repair by making a correct management of them. Therefore the waste producer (industrial companies) should act by the waste prevention principle. That means that the waste producer has to set measures to prevent waste generation and achieve its reduction in amount and / or hazard.

Once that waste reduction cannot go further other measures like recovery and recycling should be applied in order to reduce waste environmental impact.

Every waste producer hast to apply waste management measures according the following rules:

    • Minimization, which is to incorporate a series of measures to reduce, reuse and recycling at source. Consequently the generation of waste and / or the danger thereof is decreased. The term also covers the prevention, reduction, recycling or reuse of this waste in the workplace itself.
    • Reducing: Is to decrease the amount of waste generated and / or its hazardous. This may involve changes in raw materials, technological processes or implementation of best practices.

Some examples of reducing are: to replace raw materials by other less hazardous, purchase raw materials with a longer life, ask to the supplier without excessive packaging materials, etc.

    • Reusing: Is to give the products the same purpose for which they were conceived without involving the use of new resources.

One example of reusing could be the reuse of packaging.

    • Recycling: Is reused waste before a pre-treatment for the same use or different ones.

Some examples of recycling is the recovery of used oil, cleaning solvent recovery, etc.

An example of this emphasis by the Spanish authorities towards compliance with the waste hierarchy is reflected in the appearance of different Integrated Waste Management Systems. These Systems are focused on management urban or domestic wastes which by its significant volume of generation, danger or possibility of special treatment, they should be taken out from the general waste management chain. Some examples of these wastes are: used tires, batteries, used lamps and luminaries, drugs oils and their packaging for home use. Applying Integrated Waste Management Systems an appropriate selection in origin as well as high recyclability ratios are obtained.

In some cases, the particular management of some domestic wastes through an Integrated Waste Management Systems has allowed the development of new technologies that can be applied to the management of industrial waste.

A real example of good practices in waste management could be found in the waste containers and drug treatment plant BIOTRAN INDUSTRIAL WASTE MANAGEMENT, SL. The plan is located in Tudela de Duero, Valladolid (Spain) and could be consider as a pioneer since it is the only one in the world dedicated to this activity.

BIOTRAN facilities are highly automated and incorporates various technological innovations in their processes of selection and classification. That allows a significant improvement in recycling rates of packaging of medicines, both domestic and industrial

Conclusions – Figures

Figure 9. Evolution of total waste treatments.

Figure 10. Evolution of hazardous waste treatment.

Figure 11. Evolution of non-hazardous waste treatment.

Figure 12. Kind of treatment in hazardous wastes generated in 2012.

References

  • Preparing a Waste Management Plan.

European Commission, DG Environment. 2012.

  • Mejores Técnicas Disponibles de referencia europea para Incineración de Residuos. Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Medio Rural y Marino. 2011
  • Programa Estatal de Prevención de Residuos.

Ministerio de Agricultura, Alimentación y Medio Ambiente. Noviembre, 2013.

  • Manual de Gestión de Residuos Peligrosos.

Universidad de Salamanca. Julio, 2015.

Guia Metodológica para actividades de Gestión de Residuos Peligrosos y No Peligrosos. Ministerio de Agricultura, Alimentación y Medio Ambiente. Abril, 2015.

  • Diagnóstico del Sector Residuos en España

Ministerio de Agricultura, Alimentación y Medio Ambiente. Abril, 2014.

Guía de buenas práctics para la gestión de Residuos Industriales.

  • Ekotoxikologické Centrum, Bratislava (ETC)

Annex I: European Legislation.

Directive 2008/98/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 November 2008 on waste and repealing certain directives.
COMMISSION REGULATION (EU) No 1357/2014 of 18 December 2014 replacing Annex III to Directive 2008/98/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on waste and repealing certain Directives.
Regulation (EC) No 1013/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 14 June 2006 on shipments of waste.
Directive 2004/35/CE of the European Parliament and of the Council of 21 April 2004 on environmental liability with regard to the prevention and remedying of environmental damage.
Council Directive 91/689/EEC of 12 December 1991 on hazardous waste
European Parliament and Council Directive 94/62/EC of 20 December 1994 on packaging and packaging waste
Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 December 2006 concerning the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH), establishing a European Chemicals Agency, amending Directive 1999/45/EC and repealing Council Regulation (EEC) No 793/93 and Commission Regulation (EC) No 1488/94 as well as Council Directive 76/769/EEC and Commission Directives 91/155/EEC, 93/67/EEC, 93/105/EC and 2000/21/EC
DIRECTIVE 2006/12/EC OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 5 April 2006 on waste
Council Decision 93/98/EEC of 1 February 1993 on the conclusion, on behalf of the Community, of the Convention on the control of transboundary movements of hazardous wastes and their disposal (Basel Convention).

Council Decision 97/640/EC of 22 September 1997 on the approval, on behalf of the Community, of the amendment to the Convention on the control of transboundary movements of hazardous wastes and their disposal (Basel Convention), as laid down in Decision III/1 of the Conference of the Parties.

Commission Regulation (EC) No 967/2009 of 15 October 2009 amending Regulation (EC) No 1418/2007 concerning the export for recovery of certain waste to certain non-OECD countries.
Commission Regulation (EU) No 255/2013 of 20 March 2013 amending, for the purposes of adaptation to scientific and technical progress, Annexes IC, VII and VIII to Regulation (EC) No 1013/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council on shipments of waste.

Annex II: Spanish Legislation.

Real Decreto 679/2006, de 2 de junio, por el que se regula la gestión de los aceites industriales usados
Orden de 13 de octubre de 1989, por la que se determinan los métodos de caracterización de los residuos tóxicos y peligrosos
Ley 10/1998, de 21 de abril, de Residuos

Derogada por Ley 22/2011 de 28 de julio de residuos y suelos contaminados

-Ley 11/2012, de 19 de diciembre, de medidas urgentes en materia de medio ambiente.
Real Decreto 551/2006, de 5 de mayo, por el que se regulan las operaciones de transporte de mercancías peligrosas por carretera en territorio español
Real Decreto 833/88, de 20 de Julio , por el que se aprueba el Reglamento para la ejecución de la Ley 20/1986, de 14 de Mayo, Básica de Residuos Tóxicos y Peligrosos.

Real Decreto 952/1997, de 20 de junio, por el que se modifica el Reglamento para la ejecución de la Ley 20/1986, de 14 de mayo, Básica de Residuos Tóxicos y Peligrosos, aprobado mediante Real Decreto 833/1988, de 20 de julio.

Orden MAM 304/2002, de 8 de febrero que deroga la – Resolución de 17 de noviembre de 1998 de la Dirección General de Calidad y Evaluación Ambiental del Ministerio de Medio Ambiente, por la que se publica el Catálogo Europeo de Residuos (LER)

REAL DECRETO 228/2006, de 24 de febrero, por el que se modifica el Real Decreto 1378/1999, de 27 de agosto, por el que se establecen medidas para la eliminación y gestión de los policlorobifenilos, policloroterfenilos y aparatos que los contengan.
Real Decreto 1566/1999, de 8 de octubre, sobre los consejeros de seguridad para el transporte de mercancías peligrosas por carretera, por ferrocarril o por vía navegable.

Modificado por la Orden ITC/2632/ 2010 de 5 de Octubre, por la que se actualiza el Anexo III y se modifican varios aptdos y apéndices de los anexos V y VI, del RD 551/2006 de 5 de mayo.

Orden de 11 de enero de 2001 por la que se regula el contenido mínimo del informe anual para el transporte de mercancías peligrosas por carretera, por ferrocarril o por vía navegable
Real Decreto 1383/2002, de 20 de diciembre, sobre gestión de vehículos al final de su vida útil
Ley 11/1997, de 24 de abril, de envases y residuos de envases

Modificado por REAL DECRETO 252/2006, de 3 de marzo, por el que se revisan los objetivos de reciclado y valorización establecidos en la Ley 11/1997, de 24 de abril, de Envases y Residuos de Envases, y por el que se modifica el Reglamento para su ejecución, aprobado por el Real Decreto 782/1998, de 30 de abril.

REAL DECRETO 110/2015, de 20 de Febrero , sobre residuos de aparatos eléctricos y electrónicos.
Real Decreto 717/2010, de 28 de mayo, por el que se modifican el Real Decreto 363/1995, de 10 de marzo, por el que se aprueba el Reglamento sobre clasificación, envasado y etiquetado de sustancias peligrosas y el Real Decreto 255/2003, de 28 de febrero, por el que se aprueba el Reglamento sobre clasificación, envasado y etiquetado de preparados peligrosos.
Ley 26/2007 , de 23 de octubre de responsabilidad ambiental

REAL DECRETO 2090 /2008, de 22 de diciembre, por el que se aprueba el Reglamento de desarrollo parcial de la Ley 26/2007, de 23 de octubre, de Responsabilidad Medioambiental.

Real Decreto 943/2010 de 23 de julio, por el que se modifica el Real Decreto 106/2008, de 1 de febrero, sobre pilas y acumuladores y la gestión ambiental de sus residuos
Ley 16/2002, de 1 de julio , de prevención y control integrados de la contaminación (IPPC)

Modificado por la ley ómnibus y por la ley 5/2013 de 11 de junio

Real Decreto 509/2007, de 20 de abril, por el que se aprueba el Reglamento para el desarrollo y ejecución de la ley 16/2002 de 1 de julio, de prevención y control integrados de la contaminación
Real Decreto 2090/2008, de 22 de Diciembre, por el que se aprueba el Reglamento de desarrollo parcial de la Ley 26/2007, de 23 de octubre, de Responsabilidad medioambiental
Real Decreto 105/2008, de 1 de febrero, por el que se regula la producción y gestión de los residuos de construcción y demolición
Real Decreto 1133/1988 de 30 de septiembre por el que se aprueba el Reglamento para la ejecución del RD legislativo 1302/1986 de 28 de junio de EIA
Real Decreto legislativo 1/2008, de 11 de enero por el que se aprueba el texto refundido de la Ley de Evaluación de Impacto Ambiental.

Modificado por Ley 6/2010, de 24 de marzo, de modificación del texto refundido de la Ley de Evaluación de Impacto Ambiental de proyectos, aprobado por el Real Decreto Legislativo 1/2008, de 11 de enero.

REAL DECRETO 1619/2005, de 30 de diciembre, sobre la gestión de neumáticos fuera de uso.
Ley 22/2011, de 28 de julio, de residuos y suelos contaminados.

Modificada por la ley 5/2013 de 11 de junio

Ley 5/2013, de 11 de junio, por la que se modifican la Ley 16/2002, de 1 de julio, de prevención y control integrados de la contaminación y la Ley 22/2011, de 28 de julio, de residuos y suelos contaminados.
  1. http://www.chempuretech.com/
  2. By-product: a result from a production process that was not the primary aim of that process. Unlike waste, it must be able to be used afterwards. The directive allows the European Commission to set criteria to be met by substances so as to differentiate by-products from waste.
  3. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CONSLEG:2000D0532:20020101:EN:PDF
  4. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32008L0098&from=EN
  5. https://www.boe.es/boe/dias/2002/02/19/pdfs/A06494-06515.pdf
  6. Guía fácil para la gestión de residuos en la empresa (Gabinete de Salud Laboral y Medio Ambiente de CC.OO. de Navarra)
  7. Guía fácil para la gestión de residuos en la empresa (Gabinete de Salud Laboral y Medio Ambiente de CC.OO. de Navarra).
  8. Guía fácil para la gestión de residuos en la empresa (Gabinete de Salud Laboral y Medio Ambiente de CC.OO. de Navarra).
  9. http://www.waster.es/
  10. ORDEN MAM/304/2002, de 8 de febrero, por la que se publican las operaciones de valorización y eliminación de residuos y la lista europea de residuos.https://www.boe.es/diario_boe/txt.php?id=BOE-A-2002-3285
  11. European Agreement concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road (ADR).