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Waste Management Technologies

Education Module


EKOVAR Waste Management

September 2015

This project has been funded with support from the European Commission.

This publication reflects the author, and the Commission is not responsible for any use that may be made of the information contained therein.




2.1 Definition of vegetable oil 5

2.2 Vegetable oils produced and consumed in Turkey 5


3.1 Definition of waste vegetable oil 6

3.2 Waste Vegetable Oil Sources 7

3.2.2 Tank Bottom Sludge 7

3.2.3 Fat Soil 8

3.2.4 Oils Obtained From Oil Retainers 8

3.2.5 Used Cooking Oil (UCO) 8

3.3 Environmental Impact of Waste Vegetable Oils 9

3.4 Collection of Used Cooking Oils 11


4.1 Biodiesel 12

4.1.1 Biodiesel standards in Turkey 13

4.1.2 Resources for Biodiesel Production 14

4.1.3 Environmental Advantages of Biodiesel 14

4.1.4 Technical specifications for facilities producing biodiesel from waste vegetable oils. 15

4.2 Biogas 15

4.3 Acid Oil 16

4.4 Soap 16



6.1 Regulation on Control of Waste Vegetable Oil 21

6.2 Roles and Liabilities of parties 21

6.3 Waste Code according to European Waste Catalogue 22





Vegetable oils, which are oils extracted from plants have been used since ancient times and in many cultures. Apart from its widely use of cooking purposes, they are indispensable for our industry.

The demand for vegetable oils has increased rapidly in the past decades, reaching up to 150 million metric tons. The main driver for expansion has been the demand for edible oils for the food market, although the biodiesel sector represents an increasing part in the growth.

Of the 350,000 tons of waste vegetable oil that Turkey produces each year, just 10 percent is collected for recycling. When it comes to biodiesel production capacity, Turkey has a higher potential. Currently, most of its uses are in agricultural feedstock, but biodiesel production from waste oil is more environmentally friendly. When using waste oil, moreover, 65 to 80 percent of the liquid can be turned into biodiesel, which results in 50 percent less CO2 emissions than regular petroleum.

Collecting waste oil from the food sector in Turkey, began in 2005 when the regulations were issued. According to a regulation put into effect by the Ministry of Environment and City Planning in 2005, illegal dumping of waste is prohibited and licensed collecting companies have been put in charge of collecting these waste oils by the ministry.

Home waste oils must be collected in individual containers and delivered to waste oil collection companies licensed by local municipalities. However, there is no control over the waste oils produced in homes. On the other hand, institutions have to contract licensed waste oil collection companies and deliver their wastes to these companies.

Keeping waste oil from being dumped down the drain has a range of benefits. Oils congeal on the insides of sewer pipes, causing blockages and reducing pipe flow capacity, which leads to extra municipal infrastructure expenses.

When it reaches open water, oil spreads thinly over the surface and prevents oxygenation, suffocating many types of marine life. The situation allows some creatures, like jellyfish, to flourish and undergo population booms that make it even more difficult for marine ecosystems to stay diverse. Just one liter of waste oil is enough to pollute 1 million liters of water.  Domestic waste is responsible for 25 percent of water pollution in Turkey.

Biodiesel produced from used cooking oils (UCO) is also avoiding possible impacts of biofuels production on agricultural food products (helping to fulfill the sustainability criteria for biofuels set in the Renewable Energy Directive) and preventing UCO deposition in landfills. Moreover, it has the lowest greenhouse gas emissions amongst biofuels, enabling larger emission savings in comparison with petroleum derivate fuels. Thus, the recycling of UCO can contribute to achieve the target set forward by the EU to reduce its CO2 emissions by 20% by 2020.


2.1 Definition of vegetable oil

Vegetable oils are oils extracted from vegetables. These vegetable oils maybe edible (for cooking) or inedible (for industrial use). Examples of vegetable oils used in cooking are canola oil, sunflower oil, peanut oil, sesame oil, olive oil, etc.

Edible vegetable oils are used in food, both in cooking and as supplements. Vegetable oils used in cooking have a higher boiling point than water which boils at 100 °C. Cooking food at a higher temperature is quicker and produces different flavours.

Many oils, edible and otherwise, are burned as fuel, such as in oil lamps and as a substitute for petroleum-based fuels. Some of the many other uses include wood finishingoil painting, and skin care.

2.2 Vegetable oils produced and consumed in Turkey

In its liquid and solid form, vegetable oils are used in food industry and also in bait, soap, dyeing and oleo chemical industries. Besides, they are used in the biodiesel, biogas and energy production.

Turkey is not a self sufficient country to meet its needs in regard of oil seeds. Oil is the secont import item following the petroleum. Total 500 thousand tonnes of domestic oil are produced as 280 thousand tonnes from sunflower seed, 199 thousand tonnes from cottonseed oil, and remainder from corn oil and canola oil. Approximatly 1.2 million tones of shortfall are supplied by importing oil.

Turkey’s total vegetable oil consumption is 1.7 million tonnes to supply the needs of about 950 thousand tonnes liquid, 550 thousand tonnes margarine, and 200 thousand tonnes for bait, dyeing and soap industry. Therefore, vegetable oil consumption per capita is 21 kg.


3.1 Definition of waste vegetable oil

According to Control of Waste Vegetable Oils Regulation, soap-stock, tank bottom sludge and fat soils emanating from refinement of raw vegetable oil, used cooking oils, oils kept on oil retainers at various facilities and expired vegetable oils are defined as waste vegetable oil.

In Turkey, approximately 1.7 million tons of vegetable oil for the purpose of food consumed each year. As a result of oil refinement process and consumption of edible oils, approximately 350 thousand tonnes of waste vegetable oil generation is estimated.

3.2 Waste Vegetable Oil Sources

3.2.1 Soap-stock

Soapstock emerges from the edible oil refining process when oil is treated with a dilute alkali solution separating the FFAs as soaps. This wet lipid mixture is separated from the crude oil by centrifugation. It is generated at a rate of about 6% of the input of oil entering the refining operation and its cost represents 1/10 of the refined oil cost

Soapstock is quite alkaline, with pH values between 10-11. This residual is also referred to as residual oleins and has poor commercial value, but can be used as an ingredient in animal feed. It is a mixture of triglycerides of fatty acids and of the same free fatty acids.

3.2.2 Tank Bottom Sludge

Subsiding and oil containing residues in the raw vegetable oil reservoirs of oil refinement plants are called as tank bottom sludge. These sludges are treated as waste vegetable oil and collected by licenced waste vegetable oil collectors and treated in licenced recycling facilities. In theses facilities, vegetable oil is seperated fruom sludges and used as raw material for soap production industry.

3.2.3 Fat Soil

Soils emerging from refinement of the edible oils are called as fat soil. In the facilities producing edible vegetable oil, raw oil is heated up to 80-90 °C, then mixed with phosporic acid at the rate 0.1% and 0.25% bleaching soil is added to mixture and pressed on filters. As a result of this process, soil containing some fat arises. Therefore this soil has to be treated in the category of waste vegetable oil.

3.2.4 Oils Obtained From Oil Retainers

Oil retainers are units designed to seperate oil from water with physical means. These retainers are used to protect sewer system from oils poured down the kitchen sinks. For its physical property, densiety of oil is lower than water and in these units oil is cumulated on surface. Oils collected from this process shall be treated in licenced recycling facilities.

3.2.5 Used Cooking Oil (UCO)

Commonly called ‘UCO’ or ‘WCO’ (waste cooking oil), these are wastes as they are no longer fit for purpose. Most of the oil used for cooking is of the vegetable variety (e.g. canola oil, soy oil and other vegetable oils). Generally used by restaurants, catering facilities and kitchens to cook food for human consumption.

Frying can be simply defines as cooking of food in hot oil or another fat. Edible oils can reach much higher temperatures than water at normal atmospheric pressure and the food is cooked much more quickly. Depending on the food, the oil will penetrate it to varying degrees, contributing richness, lubricity, and its own flavor, as well as calories.

For domestic use, cooking oils shall be used no more than twice and changed with a refresh one. Also if used once, cooking oil must not be used after a long duration sice polymerization continues.

3.3 Environmental Impact of Waste Vegetable Oils

Oil is one of the most commonly reported types of water pollution, causing nearly a quarter of all pollution incidents.  Careless disposal of oil into drainage systems, onto land or to watercourses is an offence.  It can harm river birds, fish and other wildlife.  Although oil breaks down in water, the process uses up vast amounts of oxygen that would have remained in the waterways for wildlife.

The improper disposal of used cooking oil includes disposing them down the sink and drain, onto the ground, and into the garbage. Liquefied fat, oil, or grease that is poured down the kitchen sink drain can cause serious impacts. Oil can cling to the insides of pipes and the sewer system. Over time, it can build up and can eventually block pipes completely. If wastewater can’t move freely through pipes and out into the sewer system, it can back up into your home and can cause unsanitary conditions and damages that can be expensive to repair.

More money is spent in fixing property damage caused from sewage backups resulting in expensive clean up and plumbing repairs. Clogged sewers canals lead to overflows, which can runoff into the street and straight into the storm drain system, and eventually into our creeks and streams without being treated. Again, more money is needed to mitigate this problem.

When used cooking oils are dumped into rivers, streams or ponds, it is difficult to remove them. It is because that 1 litre of oil will contaminate 1 million litres of water.

The production of bacteria will arise due to the accumulation of the solid oil waste. All life forms need water to live. When used cooking oil is poured down the house drains, some of the drain systems will lead to the rivers, streams or ponds. This oil will be dumped into it and causes a disastrous effect on anykind of life forms in the rivers, streams or ponds such as killing fishes and water plants. Oil is poisonous to birds and kills them. It sticks to their feathers which preventing them from flying and keeping their body warm.

3.4 Collection of Used Cooking Oils

Each year, 20 million tonnes of vegetable and animal oils are used for cooking purposes all over the world. Although most of this amount consumed at industrial foundations, it is still not easy to collect and recycle these oils. Since their economic value either in crude or waste form, they can be sold in legal or illegal manners.

To avoid pollution and protect the health of human and environment, all waste vegatable oils must be incorporate in the collecting system. For this reason, all producers of waste vegetable oil should deliver waste oils to the collectors and transporters permitted by city governorships and ensure these wastes are recycled by facilities licenced by Ministry of Environment and Urbanization.

The content of total polar compounds and acid value are the most predominant indicators for oil quality and are widely used in many international regulation. For public health concerns, the content of total polar compounds and acid value in frying oil are regulated at not more than 25% and 2.0 mg KOH/g, respectively.

In Turkey, expiration criteria for frying oils has been determined on “The control criteria for the solid and liquid oils used for frying” by Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs (Legislation No: 2007/41. State Gazette Number: 26627).


According to “Control of Waste Vegetable Oils Regulation”, recycling of waste vegetable oil is defined as collection of oils by MoEU licenced facilities and treating to produce intermediate products (soap bullion, stearine, raw material for chemical industry) and final products (soap, biodiesel etc.).

Facilities to recycle waste vegetable oil should have environment licence from MoEU to start their operation. At the licencing stage, they have to acquire necessary permissions from Ministry of Health for soap production, from Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs for feeder oil. However, for their cancerogen and unhealtfull effects on organisms, use of used frying oil in production of soap or feeder oil is banned since 2005 by related organizations mutual decisions.

4.1 Biodiesel

Biodiesel is a biodegradable, combustible fuel made from vegetable oils and/or animal fats. Biodiesel produced from by-products and waste materials can be an economical way of reducing traditional oil consumption and environmental problems. The by-products from the vegetable oil refining industry such as soapstock, acid oil and fatty acid distillates are suitable for producing biodiesel.

Production of biodiesel is usually done by base‐ catalyzed trans‐esterification of fats/oils (i.e.make a big multi‐chain molecule into 3 smaller molecules).

It can be used in any compression ignition engine that will accept regular diesel fuel. Engine does NOT need to be modified to use biodiesel blended with regular diesel.

4.1.1 Biodiesel standards in Turkey

Biodiesel standards in our country conforms with EN 14214 EN 14214 which is a European Standard that describes the requirements and test methods for FAME (fatty acid methyl esters  – the most common type of biodiesel).

Criteria Unit Value
Density 15°C g/cm³ 0.86-0.90
Viscosity 40°C mm²/s 3.5-5.0
Flashpoint (Fp) °C >101
Sulphur mg/kg <10
Sulphated ash %mass <0.02
Water mg/kg <500
Carbon residue (10%dist.residue) %mass <0.3
Total contamination mg/kg <24
Cetane number >51
Methanol %mass <0.2
Ester content %mass >96.5
Monoglyceride %mass <0.8
Diglyceride %mass <0.2
Triglyceride %mass <0.4
Free glycerol %mass <0.02
Total glycerol %mass <0.25
Phosphorus mg/kg <10
Alkalimetals mg/kg <5

4.1.2 Resources for Biodiesel Production

Resources used for biodisel production can be listed as follows:

  • Vegetable resources like soy bean, rapeseed, sunflower oil, corn oil, cottonseed oil, palm oil,
  • Animal fats,
  • Used Cooking Oils,
  • Oil refinement technology by-products (acid oil, soap-stock)
  • Bleaching soil used in refinement process of vegetable oils.

4.1.3 Environmental Advantages of Biodiesel

Professor Rudolf Diesel who invented the diesel engine ran it on peanut oil.  Biodiesel can now be made from used or new vegetable oil.  Using this organic fuel has several environmental advantages over conventional diesel, and can be used directly in any diesel engine without modification.  It is an immediate way to behave sustainably.

  • Carbon dioxide produced in burning the fuel is to a large extent offset by that absorbed by the growing plant used to produce the oil. As the carbon is already in the system, biodiesel can be said to be largely carbon neutral. Unlike fossil fuels, it does not contribute to a net increase in greenhouse gas CO2 often blamed for global warming
  • Non-toxic and readily bio-degradable; petroleum diesel by contrast is highly toxic and does not readily degrade
  • Biodiesel produces significantly less polluting substances from the tailpipe – the fumes smell of French fries in contrast to petroleum diesel fumes
  • Dependent on renewable resources
  • Biodiesel can be made from recycled materials that are often dumped, keeping resources in the system
  • Produceable locally – less reliant on distribution which is often polluting.

Biodiesel is a proven fuel with over 20 years’ use in Europe.  It is far less dangerous to store and transport than mineral diesel because it is non-toxic, readily biodegradable, and has a much higher flash point than mineral diesel.

4.1.4 Technical specifications for facilities producing biodiesel from waste vegetable oils.

To comply with Turkish regulations, facilites intending to produce biodiesel from waste vegetable oils shall operate in compliance with technical regulations of “Energy Market Regulatory Board” (EPDK), shall acquire “Operation Licence” from EPDK and “Environment Licence” from Ministry of Environment and Urbanization (MoEU).

Moreover, these facilities shall acquire permission from competent authorities for use and sale of by-products as aresult of biodiesel production process.

4.2 Biogas

Biogas is a gas that is formed by anaerobic microorganisms. These microbes feed off carbohydrates and fats, producing methane and carbon dioxides as metabolic waste products. This gas can be harnessed by man as a source of sustainable energy.

Biogas is considered to be a renewable fuel as it originates from organic material that has been created from atmospheric carbon by plants grown within recent growing seasons.

Benefits of anaerobic digestion and biogas:

  • Production of renewable power through combined heat and power cogeneration
  • Disposal of problematic wastes
  • Diversion of waste from landfill
  • Production of a low-carbon fertiliser
  • Avoidance of landfill gas escape and reduction in carbon emissions

Biogas consists primarily of methane (the source of energy within the fuel) and carbon dioxide. It also may contain small amounts of nitrogen or hydrogen. Contaminants in the biogas can include sulphur or siloxanes, but this will depend upon the digester feedstock.

4.3 Acid Oil

Biodiesel can be obtained from the acid oil which results from the treatment of soapstock with sulfuric acid . Its use for biodiesel production can also improve the economic feasibility of the biodiesel process.

4.4 Soap

Although it is banned to use waste vegetable oil for soap production, it is possible to produce soap when origin of the waste oil is known and not mixed with hazardous materials. Used cooking oil is mostly used for homemade soap production.

In chemistry, soap is a salt of a fatty acid. Soaps for cleansing are obtained by treating vegetable or animal oils and fats with a strongly alkaline solution. Fats and oils are composed of triglycerides; three molecules of fatty acids attach to a single molecule of glycerol. The alkaline solution, which is often called lye, brings about a chemical reaction known as saponification.

In this reaction, the triglyceride fats first hydrolyze into free fatty acids, and then these combine with the alkali to form crude soap: an amalgam of various soap salts, excess fat or alkali, water, and liberated glycerol (glycerin). The glycerin, a useful by-product, can remain in the soap product as a softening agent, or be isolated for other uses.


The UCO management is negatively influenced by the lack of stringent regulations requiring its proper disposal through a collection infrastructure which is still non-existent in most EU-27 Member States. There’s a real need to frame consistent rules focused on UCO collection, treatment and recycling. A UCO dedicated regulation should define responsibilities and obligations for waste producers as well as for all the other figures involved. At the same time, the legal framework should avoid any ambiguity and harmonize the EU context in order to create the proper conditions for marketing the UCO as an international commodity to be traded on global scale.


Until such market conditions aren’t effective, UCO collection from households could not always be a profitable business, due to transport costs with small amounts per collection. Incentives for local collection projects would be needed to meet ever demanding recycling targets, keeping a long term view.


The categorization of UCO as feedstock for conventional biofuels as well as dedicated targets for truly advanced biofuels could push and accelerate this process. On the other side, fraudulent activity of feedstock categorization should be carefully controlled and eliminated. For this reason, certification and traceability are crucial topics. The certification field needs to converge towards a widely shared approach, thus keeping the respect of sustainability as a priority. International traceability systems, aimed to demonstrate the origin of feedstock accountable for double counting purposes, should be in place. Following this strategy, the double counting system could be implemented in a larger number of countries throughout Europe.

The uncertain EU policy line does not encourage national policy makers to increase their incentives for biofuel development. In parallel, the lack of rules or targets for vehicles that can be run on higher biofuel blends is a barrier for the uptake of the biodiesel sector. In order to encourage vehicles producers and citizens to move towards a green fuelled Europe, EU authorities should make suitable incentives available, taking into account the biodiesel CO2 reduction power. Among the analyzed cases, the Danish policy regarding CO2 tax exemption for biofuels seems to be the most appropriate one.

Clearer guidelines should be designed to support the biodiesel market, considering the whole European market balance. Starting from this consideration, national protectionist measures are not recommended. The pathway we foresee is funded on cooperation and awareness of global interests, valorised by European authorities.

EU biofuels can have a bright future ahead. Their development rate will be significantly influenced by political decisions-making.

Related Regulations

A few European provisions regulate the UCO collection and recovery systems. These regulations impact some aspects of the UCO management but they do not state a unique mandatory destiny.

  • Waste framework Directive 2008/98/EC identifies UCO as a bio-waste, in the category “edible oil and fat” (EWC 20 01 25). According to this directive MSs shall take measures to encourage the separate collection and the treatment of bio-waste in a way that fulfils an high level of environmental protection.
  • Directive 99/31/EC diverts liquid wastes (UCO included) from landfills, while Directive 2000/76/EC allows UCO to be incinerated in case it’s not a vegetable waste (when used for cooking meat or fish), setting stringent criteria for plants which intend to burn UCO.
  • The polluter-payer concept, enforced by Directive 2004/35/CE, could be the common ground to distribute responsibilities among the various actors playing a role into the UCO production/collection/recovery system. Producer responsibility schemes can be found for the recovery of some kind of wastes such as: tyres, paper/card, medicines and oils (including mineral, motor, lubricating and edible oils).
  • According to the Animal By-Products Legislation 1774/2002, UCO can not be used as an ingredient in animal feed, as it used to be used. This measure is intended to protect both animal and human health, since some toxic compounds could affect final consumers as a result of bio accumulation. UCO can only be used to produce biodiesel and oleochemical products. The EU Implementing Regulation 142/2011 defines the conditions under which UCO is a suitable starting material for biodiesel production and the process to be followed, case by case. The Regulation enables animal fats, animal oils or vegetable oils that have been in contact with
    animal proteins or have been extracted from foods containing ABPs and are no longer intended for human consumption, to be converted into biodiesel in an approved plant. Biodiesel plants are subjected to some requirements for transport, documentation and record-keeping. The approved biodiesel plant must additionally be approved and/or registered with the EU Feed Hygiene Regulation No 183/2005.
  • EU Regulation 1069/2009 requiring residual products such as filter contents, sludge, and ash to be disposed of as animal by-products in accordance with the and the EU Implementing Regulation, was lastly amended in April 2013. The use of animal fats of all categories for oleochemical products is possible in the future. Furthermore, several countries have established a maximum level of polar compounds of around 25% in order to limit the degradation of used frying fats and oils for human consumption.


6.1 Regulation on Control of Waste Vegetable Oil

Vegetable waste oil management in Turkey shall be done according to “Regulation on Control of Waste Vegetable Oil” prepared by the Ministry of Environment and Forestry dated April 19, 2005 which was published in the Official Gazette No. 25 791. Purpose of this regulation is to define technical and administrative standards for management of waste vegetable oils from its production to final disposal.

Regulation determines rules for vegetable waste oil collection, temporary storage, transportation, recycling, disposal, trade, import and export and transit of the ban, limitation and obligations of the measures to be taken, to-do audits, civil and criminal responsibilities subjected to.

6.2 Roles and Liabilities of parties

Real or legal persons who would like to collect waste vegetable oil, should acquire collector licence from related governorship. It is mandatory to use National Waste Transfer form which must be present in the vehicles.

To ensure efficient collection of used frying oils, recycling facilities can setup temporary storage areas outside their facilities. Collector facilities should acquire Temporary Storage permission from related governorship.

Recycling facilities using waste vegetable oil to produce final intermediate product, should acquire Environmet Licence from MoEU after ensuring technical specifications designated on the regulation.

Within the context of regulation, municipalities are responsible for setting up a system to collect used frying oils from households starting from year 2008.

The most common usage area of waste vegetable oils is biodiesel production. Facilities producing biodiesel by recycling used frying oil should acquire Environmet Licence from MoEU.

Establishments generating used frying oils like restaurants, catering companies, hotels, dining halls, holiday villages, are obliged to make a yearly contract with licenced recycling facilities and collectors. These waste oils must be delivered to recycling facilities or collectors free of charge.

6.3 Waste Code according to European Waste Catalogue

According to Waste Management Framework dated July 05, 2008 which was published in the Official Gazette No. 26927, below listed codes shold be selected for waste wegetable oils.

Waste Codes Waste Definition
20 01 25 Edible oil and fat
20 01 26* Oil and fat other than those mentioned in 20 01 25
02 03 01 Sludges from washing, cleaning, peeling, centrifuging and separation
02 03 04 Materials unsuitable for consumption or processing


Although Turkey falls behind European countries in terms of recycling oil wastes, with the efforts of individual volunteer researchers and conservation groups, it seems to be a promising scheme awaiting us in the future, and only requires taking concrete steps towards the implementation of nature-friendly practices.

The latest development in this area is the project for the public use of BAYTOM (Wastevegetable Oil Collection Machine) by municipalities aiming to collect waste cooking oil and prevent residents from pouring the oil down the sink. BAYTOM was developed by Erol Tonga, a Turkish chemistry teacher from Çorum Anatolian Teacher High School and produced in a small industrial estate in Çorum province.

Waste oil is poured into baytom by the people. It distinguishes undisolved oil or solid liquid in the oil with a special method . It gives you either a ticket or some amount of coin up to the amount o f the oil you poured into. It stores the oil and other wastes seperately . you specify the amount of the gift up to the litre of the poured oil. It locks up itself if any harmful liquıd poured into it. And It sends a message or makes a call to the mobile number which you have registered before. It does the same job when its tank is filled up or its gift is over.

baytom ile ilgili görsel sonucu

The Baytoms have the gathering capacity from 50 litres to 400 litres up to your choice. In Turkey Baytom is in the big shopping malls , in front of the self governing bureaus , inside of the big apartment sites and in front of the City halls. BAYTOM is also preparing to take its place in municipalities in France and England with the Turkish brand.



  • All too often used vegetable oils are improperly disposed of by washing these messy, greasy residues down the kitchen plumbing system or by dumping it down the storm drain system. Improperly disposing of leftover vegetable oils may cause property damage, health hazards, and environmental problems.
  • Pipes may be blocked by oils poured directly into the sink, even if diluted with hot water. As sewer pipes back up, sewage and food particles that accumulate can attract insects and other vermin and may create a potential health hazard by exposing people to raw sewage.
  • Property damage can also result from sewage backups resulting in expensive clean up and plumbing repairs. Clogged sewers can also lead to overflows, which can runoff into the street and straight into the storm drain system, and eventually lead to pollution of our creeks, streams and area lakes.
  • Oils pollute streams and creeks by forming a film on the water surface, which prevents oxygenation for aquatic life. One liter of waste vegetable oil poured in the sink pollutes a million liters of water
  • Commercial food preparation establishments and residents should never dispose of cooking oil by dumping it into the storm drain system. Disposing of restaurant grease into storm drains or down manhole covers is illegal.
  • Did you know that used vegetable oil can be recycled into a non-toxic, renewable, biodegradable fuel called biodiesel? Or that used fats and oils can also be recycled into animal feed and other products.


  • First, minimize the use of excess cooking oils and grease when cooking or frying.
  • Whenever food is cooked, byproducts (especially cooking oils and grease) should NOT be poured down the drain or into garbage disposals. Pans and pots with heavy grease build up should be wiped with a paper towel before being placed in the dish washer.
  • The best way to handle used cooking grease is to pour it from the pan while it is still somewhat warm into a container that you can freeze.
  • Dispose of large quantities of cooking oil and grease by contacting your local municipality or your nearest household hazardous waste collection station to find out if used cooking oil and grease is accepted.
  • After it has cooled, filter and freeze used cooking oil and reuse it for another meal.
  • Small amounts of cooking oil, such as meat drippings, can be soaked up with a paper towel and thrown into the trash.
  • After it has cooled, pour the used cooking oil into a sturdy closed-lid container, like a coffee can, and dispose of it in the trash. Another option is to slowly mix in kitty litter until all the oil is absorbed and can be placed in a garbage bag.

1. “Regulation on Control of Waste Vegetable Oil” prepared by the Ministry of Environment and Urbanization dated April 19, 2005 which was published in the Official Gazette No. 25 791.
2. “The control criteria for the solid and liquid oils used for frying” by Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs (Legislation No: 2007/41. State Gazette Number: 26627).

3. Ministry of Environment and Urbanization, General Directorate of Environment Management, April 2010, Booklet for the Management of Waste Vegetable Oils.

4. REPORT FROM THE COMMISSION TO THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT. Report on renewable energies {SWD(2013) 102 final}. Brussels : s.n., 2013.

5. Total Polar Compounds and Acid Values of Repeatedly Used Frying Oils Measured by Standard and Rapid Methods, Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, Vol. 21, 2013, Pages 58-65