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KUŞADASI BELEDİYESİ – PACKAGING WASTE

 

WASTEMANTECH project

Training module

PACKAGING WASTE

Kuşadası/Aydın/TURKEY

2016

PREPARED BY:

Dr. Ayşe ŞERİFOĞLU

Deputy Mayor

İrem

Cleaning Works Proxy Manager

Environmental Engineer

Ceylan SARIGÖL

Environmental Engineer

CONTENTS

  1. INTRODUCTION …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 4
  2. TC LEGISLATION ABOUT PACKAGING WASTE MANAGEMENT …………………………………………………… 5
    1. Constitution of The Republic of Turkey ……………………………………………………………………. 5
    2. Environmental Law ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 6
    3. Metropolitian Municipality Law ……………………………………………………………………………… 6
    4. Municipality Law…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 6
    5. Municipality Income Law ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 7
    6. Public Hygiene Law ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 7
    7. Packaging and Packaging Waste Control Regulation …………………………………………………. 7
    8. Solid Waste Control Regulations …………………………………………………………………………….. 8
    9. Regulations for Landfills ………………………………………………………………………………………… 9
  3. EU LEGISLATION ABOUT PACKAGING WASTE MANAGEMENT …………………………………………………… 9
    1. Council Directive on the Landfill of Waste ……………………………………………………………….. 9
    2. Council Decision …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 10
    3. European Parliament and Council Directive on Packaging and Packaging Waste ………. 10
  4. PACKAGING WASTE MANAGEMENT METHODS APPLIED IN TURKEY ……………………………………. 12
    1. Waste Collection Models ……………………………………………………………………………………… 12
      1. Dual System Waste Collection (Wet / Dry Model) ……………………………………………….. 12
      2. Trio System Waste Collecting (Traditional “Blue Container” Model) ……………………… 13
    2. Authorized Organisations …………………………………………………………………………………….. 14
      1. ÇEVKO Foundation ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 14
      2. Horeca Project From ÇEVKO ……………………………………………………………………………… 15
      3. Environmental Benefits of Çevko Foundation’s Efforts In 2015 …………………………….. 15
    3. Packaging Waste Brief Report of 2013 …………………………………………………………………… 16
  5. MODELS FOR PACKAGING WASTE MANAGEMENT METHODS APPLIED ARROUND THE WORLD ….. 17
  6. KUSADASI PACKAGING WASTE MANAGEMENT AND MANAGEMENT PLAN …………………………….. 17
    1. Kusadasi Packaging Waste Management ……………………………………………………………….. 17
    2. Waste Characterization Study ………………………………………………………………………………. 21
    3. Kusadasi Packaging Waste Management Plan ………………………………………………………… 27
  7. INFORMATION – AWARENESS AND TRAINING WORKS ……………………………………………………………. 37
  8. CONCLUSION …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 43

Abbreviations

MSW : Municipal Solid waste

CEVKO: Foundation of Protection of Evvironment and Recovery of Packaging Waste

 

1 INTRODUCTION

The increase in waste production and limitations in land availability for landfill construction in urban systems has triggered various revolutions such as recycling, reuse, waste minimization and waste reduction in order to minimize the quantity of waste disposed in landfills. Similarly, strategies for sustainable waste management also emphasize the need to minimize waste production, increase waste recovery and reduce the use of landfilling in order to eliminate negative effects of landfills. Organic waste and packaging materials in MSW streams are the target fractions of MSW in such waste reduction and minimization projects because these fractions compose more than 50% of the MSW stream (this percentage is generally 70 % in Turkey and 75% in Kusadasi ) and have higher recycling and recovery potential.

In this study, the information of packaging waste management execution methods in Kusadasi, in Turkey and also in the World, are shared to assume prediction of which sustainable waste management strategy can be applied in our village.

The solid wastes consist in Kusadasi Municipality boundaries are disposed in Kusadasi Landfill. The total amount of MSW generated in Kusadasi currently exceeds 60.000 ton per year. Waste composition analysis indicates that 46% of MSW is composed of organic waste and the percentage of packaging waste exceeds %29. It is clear that organic waste and packaging waste streams should be diverted as part of MSW management system to extend the life of Kusadasi Landfill site.

Collecting wastes seperately and processing them in different ways are the most famous methods in the World to reduce the amount of waste will be stored in landfills and to reduce the need for large landfills. Re-cycled or re-used wastes which collected and transported seperately are not stored in landfills, therefore the problems of landfills such as odour, leakage ext. will be eliminated.

In Kusadasi the current MSW diversion system is trio (3 stream) system which collects organic, packaging and glass wastes seperately. For this purpose, householders remove glass wastes (glass bottle, jar ext.) to the gren-white glass boxes which are set different points in the city by Municipality.

Domestic waste in different type of containers are collected regularly by vehicles devoted by Municipality and stored in Kusadasi Landfill. Green waste collected seperately are composted. Inert and inorganic waste come from composting plant are sent to landfill.

Packaging wastes accumulated in plastic bags, bins, boxes and containers are being seperated in licensed Kusadasi Packaging Waste Sorting Plant and seperated groups like paper, plastic, metal ext. sent to different licensed re-cycle plants to be processed. Inert and non-recycling waste retained from packaging wastes are sent to landfill to be stored in.

The most important factors that effect successfully implementation of waste reduction and re-cycling programme are the presentation of the system to the public and public communication. It is essential providing top participation of public for sustainability of programme (planning, pilot execution and following steps). Hereby effective presentation of the programme is needed. Furthermore, training and awareness works are cared for public participation.

By the time the success of seperately waste collection system will be effected by more factors like costs, re-cycled material market, habits of waste producers, ext. Watching permanently the system is important for determining if any revision is needed or not for increasing efficiency. Indicators of performance of this programme are the rate of public participation, the rate of recycle of waste and the cost.

2 TC LEGISLATION ABOUT PACKAGING WASTE MANAGEMENT

There are a substantial number of laws and regulations in our country.

Some of them are summarized below.

2.1 Constitution of The Republic of Turkey

Official Gazzette No: 2709 Dated: 7 Kasım 1982.

According to clause 56; everyone has the right of living in a healthy and stable environment. Developing environment, providing environmental health and preventing environmental pollution are the duties of the government and citizen. Government plans and performs sanitary institutions services with the aim of providing everyone sustain their life with a healthy body and soul, increasing efficiency and saving of human and matter power and executing cooperation.

Government performs this duty by inspecting and profiting from public and private sanitary and social institutions. As well as government, also citizens has to attempt for preventing environmental pollution in their houses and officies. With the same aim, municipalities have to establish appropriate disposal systems.

2.2 Environmental Law

Official gazzette no: 2872 Dated: 08.11.1983

The Environmental which has a nature of being a framework law, puts forward the rules and principles for the environmental protection, defines the responsible and authorized institutions and organizations, determines the processes for the implementation and establishes the punishments for the improper acts and the liabilities of the concerned within the framework of the principle “Polluter Pays”.

2.3 Metropolitian Municipality Law

Official gazzette no: 5216 Dated: 10.07.2004

According to clause 7; Metropolitian Municipality is responsible for providing protection of environment, agricultural areas and water reservoirs accordingly sustainable development principle, making or having it made metropolitian solid waste management plan, recycling, storing and disposing of solid wastes and excavations except collecting solid wastes at source and transporting them, for this purpose establishing or having it established plants, operating or having it operated.

2.4 Municipality Law

Official gazzette no: 5393 Dated: 13.07.2005

The Municipality Law includes some provisions on collection and landfill of waste, measures to be taken to protect human health etc. In many legal arrangements made until today, there are provisions directly related to waste management or provisions indirectly related to the protection of environment and human health.

According to clause 14 of the Municipality Law, municipalities are responsible for carrying out cleaning, hygiene and solid waste services. Clause 15g of the same law holds municipalities responsible for carrying out or having carried out all services regarding to disposal of solid wastes.

2.5 Municipality Income Law

Official gazzette no: 2464 Dated: 26.05.1981

In addition to clause 44, Environment Purification Tax, numbered 3914 is formed in 1993 by Ministry of Finance. This tax includes collection and disposal of domestic wastes, helps expanding municipality incomes. It has two capitals as solid waste and wastewater. County municipalities collect it and 20 percentage of this income is transferred to Metropolitian Municipalities and 10 percentage of it is transferrred to Ministry of Environment and Urban Planning Prevention of Environment Pollution Funds.

2.6 Public Hygiene Law

Official gazzette no: 1593 Dated: 24.04.1930

According to clause 248; every town and villages which have municipality, has to keep clean all streets by sweeeping and washing. All sweepings have to be transported and disposed according to town situation by vehicles which prevents them to be spread and spilt. Necessary investments are done for recycling of these wastes in the cities over 50.000 population. In conclusion, Municipalities are responsible for performing waste services.

2.7 Packaging and Packaging Waste Control Regulation

Official gazzette no: 25538 Dated: 30.07.2004

The Packaging and Packaging Waste Control Regulation allocates the main responsibility for management of packaging waste to the marketers and producers of such packaging materials. The municipalities have, however, also the responsibility ‐ together with the before mentioned producers/marketers to prepare (or have it prepared) a management plan for packaging waste. The municipalities must also collect packaging waste, or have it collected, or not hinder collection of packaging waste. They must cooperate with the before mentioned producers/marketers to ensure proper and separate collection at the source, and they must establish or ensure the establishment of facilities for recovery of packaging waste. Furthermore, the municipalities should exclude packaging waste in the normal collection of MSW and not accept packaging waste in other disposal sites than.

Re-cycling targets for Turkey are defined at item 17 as below:

Re-cycling targets per year (%)
Years Glass Plastic Metal Paper Wood
2005 32 32 30 20
2006 33 35 33 30
2007 35 35 35 35
2008 35 35 35 35
2009 36 36 36 36
2010 37 37 37 37
2011 38 38 38 38
2012 40 40 40 40
2013 42 42 42 42 5
2014 44 44 44 44 5
2015 48 48 48 48 5
2016 52 52 52 52 7
2017 54 54 54 54 9
2018 56 56 56 56 11
2019 58 58 58 58 13
2020 60 60 60 60 15

 

2.8 Solid Waste Control Regulations

Official gazzette no: 20814 Dated: 14.03.1991

The Solid Waste Control Regulation establishes the general framework of waste management system. This regulation requires the reduction of waste production as far as possible, separation of recoverable waste at its source and recycling the valuable waste for the economy, disposal of non‐recyclable waste by means of environment‐friendly methods.

Clause 18 of the Solid Wastes Control Regulation states that municipalities are responsible “for classification and separate collection of recyclable and/or reusable solid waste with the aim of disposal of household waste and industrial waste of similar nature, without any impact on the environment, reduction of environmental pollution, maximum usage of solid waste storage facilities and contribution to the economy, and for taking the necessary precautions regarding these” within municipal and contiguous areas.

With the amendment made to Environmental Law in 2006, concrete arrangements with regard to financing of waste services were introduced, the scope of fines for waste practices causing environmental pollution was extended and their amounts were increased considerably. Especially, tough sanctions were envisaged for those municipalities failing to fulfill its liabilities.

2.9 Regulations for Landfills

Official gazzette no: 27533 Dated: 26.03.2010 The aim of this regulation:

  1. Prevention of pollution by minimizing leachate and landfill gas negative effects on ground, air, groundwater and surface water
  2. Designing proper landfill bases based on the type of waste and construction of new landfills
  3. Procedures of waste approval to the landfill
  4. Operation, closure, maintenance and monitoring processes,
  5. Preventing negative risks on human health and environment including greenhouse effect on the processes of operating, closure and maintenance after closure,
  6. Determines general rules, technical and administrative matters related with the rehabilitation, closure and maintenance after closure of the existing landfills.

3 EU LEGISLATION ABOUT PACKAGING WASTE MANAGEMENT

3.1 Council Directive on the Landfill of Waste

No: 1999/31/EC Dated : 26.04.1999

The objective of the Directive is to prevent or reduce as far as possible negative effects on the environment from the landfilling of waste, by introducing stringent technical requirements for waste and landfills. The main environmental threat from biowaste is the production of methane in landfills, which accounted for some 3% of total greenhouse gas emissions in the EU‐15 in 1995. This Directive obliges Member States to reduce the amount of biodegradable waste that they landfill to 35% of 1995 levels by 2016, which will significantly reduce the problem. The Commission’s priority is to ensure that Member States comply with this legal requirement fully and on time.

The articles of the Directive provide e.g:

  • Requirements for permit application (Articles 8 + 9)
  • Requirements for closure and aftercare procedures (Article 13)
  • Requirements for existing landfill sites (including preparing of conditioning plans, cf. Article 14)
  • Requirements for reporting obligations (Article 15)
  • Requirements for gas control etc. (Paragraph 4 in Annex I to the LFD).

In terms of environmental protection the directive also contains detailed provisions for the design, operation, restoration, aftercare and monitoring of landfill sites. The requirements will apply immediately to all new landfills but existing sites will also have to be brought up to the higher standards, or will have to close. All current licences will need to be reviewed and there will be a transitional period, up to 2009, for bringing existing sites up to the required standard.

3.2 Council Decision

No: 2003/33/EC Dated : 19.12.2002

This Decision is establishing criteria and procedures for the acceptance of waste at landfills pursuant to Article 16 of and Annex II to The Landfill Directive.

3.3 European Parliament and Council Directive on Packaging and Packaging Waste

No: 94/62/EC Dated : 20.12.1994

This Directive provides for measures aimed at limiting the production of packaging waste and promoting recycling, re-use and other forms of waste recovery. Their final disposal should be considered as a last resort solution.

This Directive covers all packaging placed on the European market and all packaging waste, whether it is used or released at industrial, commercial, office, shop, service, household or any other level, regardless of the material used.

Member States should take measures to prevent the formation of packaging waste, and to develop packaging reuse systems reducing their impact on the environment.

The Member States were to introduce systems for the return and/or collection of used packaging to attain the following targets:

  • by no later than 30 June 2001, between 50 and 65 % by weight of packaging waste to be recovered or incinerated at waste incineration plants with energy recovery;
  • by no later than 31 December 2008, at least 60 % by weight of packaging waste to be recovered or incinerated at waste incineration plants with energy recovery;
  • by no later than 30 June 2001, between 25 and 45 % by weight of the totality of packaging materials contained in packaging waste to be recycled (with a minimum of 15 % by weight for each packaging material);
  • by no later than 31 December 2008, between 55 and 80 % by weight of packaging waste to be recycled;
  • no later than 31 December 2008 the following targets for materials contained in packaging waste must be attained:

60 % for glass, paper and board;

50 % for metals;

22.5 % for plastics and; 15 % for wood.

The incineration of waste at plants with energy recovery is regarded as contributing to the realisation of these objectives.

Greece, Ireland and Portugal, because of the large number of small islands, the presence of rural and mountain areas and the low level of packaging consumption respectively, were not bound by the targets until 2011.

Marking and identification system

The packaging shall indicate the nature of the materials used for the packaging in order to facilitate identification and classification. The marking must be attached to the actual packaging or on its label.

It must be clearly visible and legible.

Essential requirements

Packaging must meet certain requirements. For this reason, the Commission encourages the development of European standards.

Member States must ensure that packaging placed on the market complies with the essential requirements of Annex II:

  • to limit the weight and volume of packaging to a minimum in order meet the required level of safety, hygiene and acceptability for consumers;
  • to reduce the content of hazardous substances and materials in the packaging material and its components;
  • to design reusable or recoverable packaging.

Information systems

Member States should develop information systems (databases) on packaging and packaging waste so that realisation of the targets of this Directive can be monitored. The data they hold must be sent to the Commission in the formats laid down in Annex III.

Derogations

Directive 2005/20/EC sets a later deadline for the 10 new Member States (the Czech Republic, Estonia, Cyprus, Latvia, Lithuania, Hungary, Malta, Poland, Slovenia, Slovakia) to meet the targets of this packaging directive. These derogations are valid until 2015. Romania and Bulgaria have also been granted specific derogations, defined in their respective Treaties of Accession.

4 PACKAGING WASTE MANAGEMENT METHODS APPLIED IN TURKEY

4.1 Waste Collection Models

Two types of packaging waste collection system implemented in our country are summarized below.

4.1.1 Dual System Waste Collection (Wet / Dry Model)

Dual waste collection system is also named “wet / dry system” and based on collection of two groups of waste separately put away in the street containers. There are two different groups of waste and these are;

Wet waste – Allocated containers for wet waste are for collection of all organic waste (domestic organic waste, animal waste, vegetable and fruit waste, green waste etc.). Compost produced as a result of processing of organic waste can be used for conditioning the soil in park and recreation areas. Inert materials involved are removed from the system.

Dry Waste – Other waste cannot be assessed as organic waste take place in this group. Recyclable and non-recyclable waste are collected together. Recyclable waste (metal, paper, cupboard, plastic etc.) which sorted according to the categories in the Kuşadası Packaging Waste Sorting Plant are sent to licensed re-cycling plants and non-recyclable part is generally disposed in the landfill.

Advantage of this system is having lower cost when compared with the trio collecting system and reducing the amount of waste sent to the landfill rather than mixed collecting system. Besides sorting process done in Kuşadası Packaging Waste Sorting Plant brings no extra payment to the people.

However technology and labor used for sorting the waste comes with additional costs.

4.1.2 Trio System Waste Collecting (Traditional “Blue Container” Model)

Traditionally implemented waste sorting system based on separating the waste in 3 groups. Waste collected separately on the street containers and regional civic amenity centers (recyclable, organic and non-recyclable wastes) are processed in different plants according to their categories.

Sorting the waste in 3 groups by giving more responsibility to the polluters, reduces recycling process costs which seems to be the most important advantage of this system. Triple system become the most common system implemented in such countries with the low costs and high recycling rates.

“Trio System Waste Collecting ” with slight modification is being used for source separation in some cities in Turkey as well as Kuşadası.

In the new trio system; glass material is removed before joining to waste stream. The householder or building manager must carry recyclable glass material to the glass containers located in bring centers located at different parts of the town.

Biodegradable waste with non-recyclable waste (domestic waste) will be placed in a bin or container for collection by a dedicated vehicle which will take the material to the landfill site.

Dry recyclables will be placed in a bin, container or plastic bags. Waste operatives in sorting facility will sort the materials into different streams (plastics, aluminum cans, iron and other metals, paper and card board etc). Only residual material will be taken to the landfill.

Green waste are brought to composting plant by producer (polluter) apart from other waste.

4.2 Authorized Organisations

There are 4 authorized organisation work on Re-cycling of Packaging Waste in Turkey:

  1. ÇEVKO
  2. PAGÇEV
  3. TÜKÇEV
  4. AGED

We will give you information about ÇEVKO Foundation because our partner of re-cycling is ÇEVKO. Other authorized organisations have similarly targets like ÇEVKO and work in the same way.

ÇEVKO Foundation is a non-profit foundation established with the initiative of 14 leading industrial companies in our country on date November 1991 in order to contribute to the establishment of a sustainable recycling system with the contribution and participation of local management and consumers for the economic and regular recycling of packing wastes in Turkey.

ÇEVKO Foundation adopts the “Integrated Waste Management” principles in all works performed by it pursuant to its purpose of establishment. ÇEVKO Foundation has performed works in order to form the required system in order to enable the healthy and clean recycling of glass, metal, plastic, composite and paper/cardboard type packing wastes. With the Integrated Waste Management, the sharing of responsibility of local managements, industry and consumers is prioritized.

ÇEVKO Foundation, gaining the usage right of the international “Green Dot” trademark in Turkey in the year 2002, was admitted to the recycling organizations family using such trademark which is widespread in Europe and was entitled to represent our country in the European Union.

ÇEVKO foundation, which started its journey in 1991 with 14 members, was announced to be an Authorized Organization by the Turkish Republic Ministry of Environment and Urbanization within the framework of the “Regulation on the Control of Packaging and Packaging Waste” published in 2005 during the harmonization process of Turkey to the EU. As of the year 2005, companies selling packaged products in the Turkish market have been transferring their recovery obligations to ÇEVKO Foundation for the recovery of packaging waste.

The Foundation has fulfilled its obligations in accordance with the “Regulation on the Control of Packaging Waste” which was re-enacted in August 2011.

ÇEVKO Foundation carries out activities regarding communication, awareness-raising and training for the performance of the liabilities it has assumed. The authorized organization develops activities regarding the separate collection of packaging waste at source in cooperation with municipal administrations and licensed companies on behalf of the packaging producers and economic operators which put packaging on to the market it represents. By virtue of this, ÇEVKO Foundation fills a significant gap at the implementation stage of the regulation.

4.2.2 Horeca Project From ÇEVKO

The packaging type that we live most trouble in re-cycling is glass. Glass packaging waste doesn’t arouse interest even by junkdealers because of its physical property (breakable) and it’s low price. Besides gathering seperately at source works are expensive methods, glass collection boxes are given by Anadolu Glass Industry to Municipalities aren’t achieved expected efficiency made ÇEVKO lead to new research. When we ask for gathering more glass packaging waste apart from other packaging waste and domestic waste with less collecting cost, it’s seen that most of glass packaging material are consumed at hotel, restaurant, bar and cafes (HORECA).

HOREKA Project: Redesigning glass collection boxes which are at HOREKA or close to them by considering HOREKA’s properties, using special producted transportation trucks for emptying new designed boxes, training HOREKA employees and collecting glass packaging waste between 8 p.m. and 4 a.m. from HOREKA.

The amount of collected glass packaging waste increased more than 50 percent at pilot zones that ÇEVKO applied HOREKA Project. Also this summer HOREKA will started to be applied in Kuşadası.

4.2.3 Environmental Benefits of Çevko Foundation’s Efforts In 2015

Tree : 3,825,404 trees has been preserved as a result of the recycling of cardboard/composite/ wood packaging waste. 3,824 square meters of forest field

Electricity : 2,073,943,604 kWh of electrical energy has been saved as a result of the recycling of packaging waste. Yearly power consumption of 751,427 families

Landfill : 3,490,049 cubic meters of landfill has been spared as a result of the recycling of the packaging waste. 484 soccer fields

Fossil Fuel : 125,637,392 liters of fossil fuel has been saved as a result of the recycling of the packaging waste. 2,791,942 fuel tanks

Water : 5,792,699,458 liters of water has been saved as a result of the recycling of cardboard/composite packaging waste. yearly water consumption of 33,101 families

4.3 Packaging Waste Brief Report of 2013

Achieved Numbers in Turkey in 2013.

EVOLOUTION OF PACKAGING WASTE FOR 2013

Waste Code Category Producted

Package (ton)

B-1 Scope B-2 Scope

Released

(ton)

C Scope

Supplied

(ton)

Released (ton) Re-cycled (ton) Re-cycling Ratio (%)
15*01*02 Plastic 1.566.809 904.579 472.890 52 64.048 59.224
15*01*04 Metal 279.177 156.879 82.187 52 52.791 19.497
15*01*05 Composite 148.184 97.904 71.524 73 121.816 17.123
15*01*01 Paper-

Cartoon

2.358.591 1.271.906 1.429.091 112 30.370 88.300
15*01*07 Glass 899.596 641.520 183.053 29 36.863 154.487
15*01*03 Wood 655.477 456.057 61.600 14 6.186 53.103
TOTAL 5.907.834 3.528.845 2.300.345 65 312.074 391.734

Except glass re-cycling ratio we achieved 2013 target ratios determined in Packaging Waste

Control Regulation. (for whole targets see part 2.7)

5 MODELS FOR PACKAGING WASTE MANAGEMENT METHODS APPLIED ARROUND THE WORLD

In abroad, lots of foodstuff is offered for sale by packing in small amounts differently than the consumption in our country. So the amount of packing material and packing waste is being increased.

For the purpose of reducing packaging waste, offering for sale same stuff in bulk system is started.

Consumer brings his own re-filled package.

  • To charge packing material in Markets is important for making consumer aware about the subject.
  • Rapprochements with industries is founded on willingness are common in Belgium and Holland but not regarded at all. Non-Governmental Organizations submit that these applications are not transparent and not aiming reducing waste.
  • There is Zero-Waste Campaign with the aim of reducing packaging waste production at source in Austin Texas America. There is no packaging system in some department stores under the name of Zero-Waste Campaign. Consumers come with their own files or packages.
  • In the scope of same Zero-Waste Campaign, “Robuust” named store is opened in Anvers Europe and done week later “Original Unverpack” named store is opened in Berlin with the same slogan.

6 KUSADASI PACKAGING WASTE MANAGEMENT AND MANAGEMENT PLAN

6.1 Kusadasi Packaging Waste Management

Works of collecting package waste separately at source in Kusadasi started by running Kusadasi Packaging Waste Sorting Plant after getting it licensed on 01 August, 2011. This plant was rent to licensed Packaging Waste Sorting Companies by bidding and packaging wastes are started to be collected separately. Renter Company carries out all responsibilities of Kusadasi Municipality that comes from Packaging Waste Control Regulation and our Municipality controls every step of the renter company.

Because of Kusadasi is a town of Aydın, part of authority and responsibility of Kusadasi Councill is turned-over to Aydın after Aydın became Metropolitian on March, 2014. Also the villlages of Kusadasi especially Davutlar, Guzelcamlı and Yayla, Soğucak, Kirazlı, Yeni and Caferli became as neighbourhoods of Kusadasi.

Population and responsibility area of Kusadasi increased with Metropolitian Municipality Law. According to this law; Metropolitian Municipality is responsible for providing protection of environment, agricultural areas and water reservoirs accordingly sustainable development principle, taking precautions for preventing environmental pollution, making or having it made metropolitian solid waste management plan, recycling, storing and disposing of solid wastes and excavations except collecting solid wastes at source and transporting them, for this purpose establishing or having it established plants, operating or having it operated. Kusadasi Landfill which is established by Kus-Atak Municipalities Union in Kusadasi is turned-over to Aydın after Metropolitian Municipality Law. Even cleaning of squall, boulevard, street and highway is under the responsibility of Metropolitian, couse of haven’t done required organisations, these cleanings are still done by Kusadasi Cleaning Works Department. Kusadasi Packaging Waste Sorting Plant’s responsibility is still belongs to Kusadasi Municipality. We are still operating it. Also collection and transportation of solid waste are under Kusadasi Municipality responsibilty.

There are 3 Storing Cells, Compost Plant, Medical Waste Incineration Unit, Gas Incineration Plant, Leakage Water Collection Pool units in Kusadasi Landfill Plant. Domestic wastes which are collected from responsibility area of Kusadasi, aren’t sent to Compost Plant, they are sent to Landfill to be stored because they are not %100 organic waste. But collected green waste and garden waste are being compost at Compost Plant directly. Produced compost is used for plant, flower planting and greening works of Aydın Metropolitian Municipality Park and Gardens Deparment.

Kusadasi Packaging Waste Sorting Plant is established by Kus-Atak Municipalities Union and is provided to started-up. It is established with the aim of classification of mixed collected package waste into paper, plastic, metal and glass then pressing each groups and sending to licensed re-cycling plants.

There are lots of models of packaging waste collection ways arround the World. The most developed collection system is collecting them as 4 groups of paper, plastic, metal, glass separated from domestic waste at source. So there would be no need to separation process and sent to re-cycling plants. This is the advantage. But in this way instead of 1 crane truck for collection, there would be 4 crane trucks for each routes, so this is disadvantage. Also this system reduces time loss and cost resulted from sorting conveyor band, sorting employees, sorting and transportation of domestic waste in packaging waste, but raises collection cost cause of increment in number of crane trucks.

But separated collection of packaging waste does not just depend on cost, also it depends on sociaeconomic status of the application area and habits of public.

We started to collect packaging waste separated from domestic waste in four boxes as paper – plastic – glass – metal. It was a big step for our public which will face this system at first time. Then we couldn’t get satisfied efficiency. So we made the boxes for mixed packaging waste this gave us the problem of breaking glass packaging waste in mixed waste. Collecting mixed packaging waste with our crane truck makes glasses broken so it is hard to sort glasses from the others and risk for the health of employees who work for sorting. Also glass packaging waste has not much value to suffer this hardness. But there are big re-cycling companies expert on glass packaging waste and they produce

glass at their factories. We made a contract with one of the licensed big glass re-cycling company. They put green-white boxes all around Kusadasi for collection of glass packaging waste.

Today we collect packaging waste mixed but apart from glass. So we have two kind of packaging waste collection boxes. Green- white ones are for glasses and blue ones for the mixed packaging waste.

 

The renter company of Kusadasi Packaging Waste Sorting Plant and the glass company have the rights for collecting packaging waste from all offices, department stores, hotels and other big firms depending on Packaging Waste Control Regulation. This regulation gives the rights of collecting all packaging waste generated in its own responsibility area for free, to Municipalities

which has its own packaging waste sorting plant. Just the department stores with bigger area more than 120 meter square which have their own collection (bringing) centre certified by Ministry of Environmental and Urban Planning for packaging waste. We made notification for the commercial enterprises that they have to give their packaging waste to Kusadasi Municipality Collection System for free, means their waste will be collected by the firms that we made contract with.

As every other country we have the problems of junk dealers. Collecting packaging waste from commercial enterprises had been used to be the job of junk dealers till 2011. Junk dealers buys packaging waste with cost. So the difficulty is prevent these junk dealers to collect packaging waste in unappropriate and illegal way. But the punishment is high if we catch them. So the regulation says

Municipality which does the packaging waste sorting should employ the junk dealers work in the city. It is not an obligation but giving them job formally solves the problem and takes them into the system without leaving them out of employment.

Another difficulty is; there aren’t many licensed company professional at operating packaging waste sorting plants.

6.2 Waste Characterization Study

In the scope of preparament of Packaging Waste Management Plan, Waste Characterization Study is done by Renter Company of Kusadasi Packaging Sorting Plant under inspection of Kusadasi Municipality Cleaning Works Department for determining packaging waste percentage in domestic waste collected from Kusadasi responsibility area.

First of all waste composition must be determined for a healthy and right Waste Management. After this study in terms of sustainable development, it can be decided in which way we can re-use or dispose our waste economically. Waste Characterization Study was executed on 13 May, 2015 for collecting domestic, packaging wastes in right way and determining course of action that we would follow. In this study our target is to determine packaging waste percentage in domestic waste, so be able to prepare a healthy Packaging Waste Management Plan to re-cycle this percentage of packaging waste instead of landfilling.

This study is done according to Waste Characterization Analysis Method Handbook prepared by Ministry of Environmental and Urban Planning.

For this study below steps were followed:

Domestic wastes from each low, medium, high income levelled neighbourhoods and shopping district in equal volumes were collected in an empty truck for diversifying waste to represent whole Kusadasi waste.

These domestic waste collected in a hydrolic compression truck were transported to the plant and weighed. Regarding to weigh –bridge slip, the total weigh of our samples of domestic waste is 680 kg.

We dump these sample of domestic waste on plastic cover laid on ground for separating.

We prepared a lot of equal volumed boxes to classify wastes and put each box individually. We put labels to define what kind of waste will be in.

Weigh-bridge is reset and we weigh the empty boxes tare, it was 0, 51 gr.

Classification was done by 4 female and 2 male employee. During the classification one renter company environmental engineer and Cleaning Works Department Packaging Waste Controller Environmental Engineer guide the employees to ensure wastes were

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Datas come from analyse and the amounts of packaging waste in domestic waste are given at below charts and graphics.

COMPONENTS OF SOLID WASTE VOLUME

(M3)

VOLUME % WEIGHT

(KG)

WEIGHT %
Food Waste 0,45 12,09 197,26 29,01
Paper 0,15 4,10 42,82 6,30
Carton 0,40 10,72 22,24 3,27
Big Volumed carton 0,34 9,12 29,41 4,33
Plastic 1,37 36,49 65,56 9,64
Glass 0,13 3,42 33,40 4,91
Metal 0,06 1,60 2,41 0,35
Big Volumed Metal 0,03 0,91 1,97 0,29
Electric and Electronic Equipment Waste 0,02 0,46 1,10 0,16
Hazardous Waste 0,06 1,48 6,53 0,96
Green Waste 0,02 0,46 1,17 0,17
Other Non-Falmmables 0,09 2,28 82,49 12,13
Other Flammables 0,34 9,12 75,11 11,04
Other Flammable Big Volumed Waste 0,02 0,46 1,93 0,28
Other Non-Flammable Big Volumed Waste 0,26 6,84 3,65 0,54
Others 0,02 0,46 0,41 0,06
Loss 112,58 16,56
Total 3,76 100,00 680,00 100,00

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

GRAPHİCS FOR WEİGHT AND VOLUME OF SOLİD WASTE COMPONENTS

If we put together the similar groups:

COMPONENTS OF SOLID WASTE VOLUME (M3) VOLUME % WEIGHT (KG) WEIGHT %
Organic waste 0,5 13 311 46
Paper – Carton 0,9 24 94 14
Plastic 1,4 36 66 10
Glass 0,1 3 33 5
Metals 0,1 3 4 0
Other waste 0,8 21 171 25

 

 

On the other hand if we would like to see package waste total percentage:

COMPONENTS OF SOLID WASTE WEIGHT % VOLUME %
Organic waste 46 13
Package waste 29 66
Other waste 25 21

 

 

 

 

 

Depending to our analyses, it is determined that percentage of package waste is %29 for weight and %66 for volume in domestic waste sent to landfill in Kusadasi in 2015.

%66 volume of domestic waste is package waste means that trash bins on streets get full fastly, cost of waste collection increases more than double, life of landfill decreases by half and more green area is used as landfill (destroyed).

 

 

 

6.3 Kusadasi Packaging Waste Management Plan

In order to fulfill the responsibilities charged on Municipalities by Packaging Waste Control Regulation, we as Kuşadası Municipality made a tripartite contract on March, 2016 between authorized organization ÇEVKO and licensed collecting company ÖZMÜŞLER Waste Management for 3 years. As a result of this agreement made with ÇEVKO, the current packaging waste collection activities are intended to increase and become more efficient.

In order to collect glass packaging waste apart from other packaging waste, we as Kuşadası Municipality made a tripartite contract on July, 2015 between authorized organization ÇEVKO and licensed collecting company Muzaffer Pınarbaşı for 3 years. As a result of this agreement, the current glass packaging waste collection activities are increased and become more efficient.

So we are ready to begin to execute Packaging Waste Management Plan with our partners.

23 neighbourhoods of Kusadasi are grouped regarding to their geopraphical position, population density and which seasons they’re full, for determining pilot zones for Kusadasi Packaging Waste Management Plan. Regarding to Management Plan in pilot-zone; priority will be education and introduction works, house by house, office by office will be trainings to provide public awareness and fixed days – fixed hours package waste will be collected specially from buildings. The efficiency of pilotzone work will be observed by increase in amount of collected package waste by zone then works will be revised.

Kusadasi Packaging Waste Management Plan is shaped depending on below given datas.

According to results of 2014 population record system depends on addresses, the population of Kusadasi is 101.619. Population has variation in summer and in winter.

Winter Population Summer Population Average Population
101.619 300.000 200.000

 

Economy of Kusadasi depends on tourism and commerce. There are lots of small and medium scaled business and big hotels in Kusadasi. Settlement texture of Kusadasi is formed by houses and offices. Houses are formed by generally buildings and shanties. Radiator, air conditioner, electrical heaters and stove are the warming ways used in Kusadasi.

Daily domestic waste amounts for each neighbourhood are given below:

Name of Neighbourhood Amount of Domestic Waste (ton/day)
ALACAMESCİT 1,5
BAYRAKLIDEDE 2,7
CAFERLİ 0,2
CAMİATİK 4,5
CAMİKEBİR 1,4
CUMHURİYET 6,3
DAVUTLAR 14,7
DAĞ 0,5
DEĞİRMENDERE 3,0
EGE 16,0
GÜZELÇAMLI 9,2
HACIFEYZULLAH 15,5
KADIKALESİ 0,9
KADINLAR DENİZİ 13,6
KARAOVA 3,4
KİRAZLI 1,3
SOĞUCAK 3,3
TÜRKMEN 16,9
YAVANSU 2,1
YAYLA 0,8
YENİ 1,0
ÇINAR 0,4
İKİÇEŞMELİK 13,0
Total 132,1

 

DOMESTIC WASTE QUANTITIES (TON)

Date 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
january 2334 1820 1103 2720 3824 4088 4255
february 2154 2833 2639 3032 3534 3500 3795
march 2588 3339 3154 3844 4027 4109 4215
april 3091 3634 3436 4447 4206 4495
may 3528 4386 3933 4787 4778 5737
june 4707 5420 5048 5825 6064 7212
july 7445 5096 6460 6853 8251 9352
august 7742 5839 6274 8384 9142 10453
september 5999 5308 5044 7717 6335 7649
october 4333 3802 3904 5727 5072 5328
november 2860 2875 2872 4182 3837 4183
december 1255 2989 2989 2552 3452 3987 3987
Total 1255 49770 47343 46418 60969 63057 70093 12265
Total 351171

 

 

2013 PAPER PLASTIC GLASS METAL TOTAL
Ocak 0 0 0 0 16
Şubat 0 0 0 0 30
Mart 0 0 0 0 51
Nisan 0 0 0 0 53
Mayıs 0 0 0 0 24
Haziran 0 0 0 0 0
Temmuz 0 0 0 0 0
Ağustos 0 0 0 0 0
Eylül 0 0 0 0 0
Ekim 0 0 0 0 0
Kasım 78 4 8 1 91
Aralık 45 6 11 1 64
TOPLAM

(ton)

123 11 19 2 330

 

 

 

 

 

 

2014 PAPER PLASTIC GLASS METAL TOTAL
Ocak 54 0 0 0 54
Şubat 47 0 0 0 47
Mart 83 0 20 2 105
Nisan 103 0 0 3 106
Mayıs 112 10 16 6 144
Haziran 119 14 14 8 156
Temmuz 130 6 10 5 151
Ağustos 126 11 29 4 169
Eylül 125 7 23 5 161
Ekim 0 0 0 0 0
Kasım 0 0 0 0 0
Aralık 47 12 1 0 60
TOPLAM

(ton)

948 60 113 33 1154

 

2015 PAPER PLASTIC GLASS METAL TOTAL
JANUARY 49 7 2 2 60
FEBRUARY 39 6 0 2 47
MARCH 81 7 0 1 90
APRIL 153 14 6 5 178
MAY 153 18 8 3 182
JUNE 0 0 0 0 0
JULY 0 0 79 0 79
AUGUST 0 0 93 0 93
SEPTEMBER 265 31 135 10 442
OCTOBER 212 28 173 9 422
NOVEMBER 166 15 127 2 310
DECEMBER 106 9 87 6 208
Total 1224 135 709 42 2109

 

2016 PAPER PLASTIC GLASS METAL TOTAL
Ocak 96 14 95 6 211
Şubat 130 20 112 7 269
Mart 159 34 147 4 344

 

 

 

 

Details of Stages

 

1.

Stage

 

 

 

Türkmen

 

10082

 

12983

 

3

 

4

 

1921

 

145

 

13

 

151

 

ÖZMÜŞLER

Ege 6817 12282 2 3 800 5 12 143 ÖZMÜŞLER
Bayraklıdede 2190 2061 1 2 249 18 2 24 ÖZMÜŞLER
Cumhuriyet 3861 4817 5 2 583 154 5 56 ÖZMÜŞLER
Total 22950 32143 11 11 3553 322 0 32 373 ÖZMÜŞLER
 

 

2.

Stage

 

 

 

Hacıfeyzullah 6205 11954 1 2 1394 57 1 12 139 ÖZMÜŞLER
Kadınlar Denizi 11320 10442 4 3 11320 128 10 121 ÖZMÜŞLER
Camiatik 1865 3462 3 9 1865 33 3 40 ÖZMÜŞLER
Alacamescit 986 1178 0 5 376 19 1 14 ÖZMÜŞLER
Camikebir 2556 1095 7 4 169 11 1 13 ÖZMÜŞLER
Dağ 616 362 2 196 23 0 4 ÖZMÜŞLER
Total 23548 28493 15 25 15320 271 1 28 331 ÖZMÜŞLER
 

 

3.

Stage

 

 

Kirazlı 902 985 2 2 628 1 1 11 ÖZMÜŞLER
Yeni 404 773 1 2 255 0 1 9 ÖZMÜŞLER
İkiçeşmelik 6133 10038 2 4 896 21 10 117 ÖZMÜŞLER
Değirmendere 8635 2280 4 2 526 2 2 26 ÖZMÜŞLER
Çınar 265 323 0 2 170 0 0 4 ÖZMÜŞLER
Total 16339 14399 9 12 2475 24 0 14 167 ÖZMÜŞLER
4. Stage Davutlar 19476 11295 5 3 2231 14 1 11 131 ÖZMÜŞLER
Güzelçamlı 13164 7109 2 4 1524 8 1 7 83 ÖZMÜŞLER
Karaova 6452 2618 1 2 1091 10 3 30 ÖZMÜŞLER
Soğucak 6200 2506 0 2 1250 0 2 29 ÖZMÜŞLER
Yavansu 3106 1583 1 2 343 27 2 18 ÖZMÜŞLER
Caferli 232 127 0 2 155 0 0 1 ÖZMÜŞLER
Yayla 414 640 1 2 231 0 1 7 ÖZMÜŞLER
Kadıkalesi 2663 706 0 2 173 1 1 8 ÖZMÜŞLER
Total 51707 26584 10 19 6998 52 2 26 309 ÖZMÜŞLER
 

General Total

 

114544

 

101619

 

45

 

67

 

28346

 

677

 

3

 

100

 

1180

 

ÖZMÜŞLER

Collection Methods

Türkmen 311592 Weekly 150 5 2500
Ege 294768 Weekly 100 5 2500
Bayraklıdede 49464 Weekly 50 5 400
Cumhuriyet 115608 Weekly 120 5 960
Total 711432 Weekly 420 20 6360
Hacıfeyzullah 286896 Weekly 130 5 2390
Kadınlar Denizi 250608 Weekly 200 5 2000
Camiatik 83088 Weekly 130 5 690
Alacamescit 28272 Weekly 80 5 235
Camikebir 26280 Weekly 80 5 235
Dağ 8688 Weekly 80 5 72
Total 683832 Weekly 700 30 5622
Kirazlı 23640 Weekly 80 5 197
Yeni 18552 Weekly 80 5 154
İkiçeşmelik 240912 Weekly 80 5 2000
Değirmendere 54720 Weekly 80 5 450
Çınar 7752 Weekly 50 5 64
Total 345576 Weekly 370 25 2865
Davutlar 271080 Weekly 130 5 2250
Güzelçamlı 170616 Weekly 130 5 1420
Karaova 62832 Weekly 130 5 520
Soğucak 60144 Weekly 130 5 500
Yavansu 37992 Weekly 130 5 316
Caferli 3048 Weekly 115 5 25
Yayla 15360 Weekly 115 5 128
Kadıkalesi 16994 Weekly 130 5 141
Total 638066 Weekly 1010 40 5300
 

General Total

 

2378456

 

Weekly

 

2500

 

115

 

20147

7 INFORMATION – AWARENESS AND TRAINING WORKS

Appointment from schools were taken by official correspondence with Ministry of Education and trainings for collecting packaging wastes separately have been started to be given at kindergartens, primary and hotels from 2014.

The number of students which were trained by our training staff are given below.

 

PERIOD

 

Number of Kindergarten

Students

 

Number of Primary

School Students

 

Number of Hotel

Staff

 

Total

2014 1087 1376 603 3066
2015 266 2644 2910

 

 

 

 

Trainings are being continued.

Also more trainings described below will be given in the scope of Pilot-Zone Works by the renter company of Package Waste Sorting Plant and Kusadasi Municipality.

Information Works: At the beginning there will be information works at Turkmen, Ege, Bayraklıdede and Cumhuriyet Neighbourhoods which were chosen for the first stage of Pilot-Zone Works. Information about re-cycling and re-using of packaging wastes will be given to householders and brochures will be delivered for more details. After these information works, additional interior boxes and containers will be set in the neighbourhood, so collection of separated packaging waste at source will be started.

Trainings at School: In the scope of the protocol was signed between Ministry of Education and CEVKO Foundation, trainings for teachers will be made. In this programme named “Education of Educators”, it is planned to give a briefing at Council Hall to 90 teachers come from 45 schools (2 teachers per each school) placed in Kusadasi.

After briefing, education kit will be given to the teachers and it is planned to deliver books to every school as the number of students of school.

Theatre Display: It is planned to display “Environmental Cat Cevki” thaetre in the scope of “Education of Educators” programme of Authorised Foundation Cevko.

 

 

Today we live in technology era so we have to trace reducing of waste, re-cycling and re-using technologies together with developed waste disposal systems. But when the subject is reducing of waste, factors like human, education, economy and habits are important as well as factors of technology and economy.

In spite of application for diversion of packaging waste is lately started in our country. If we compare with the other countries, our country has advantages. Because of our social- economic structure, we have the habit of shopping from bazaars by kilogram instead of shopping from supermarkets by small amounts packaged foodstuff, cause we have big families, we have the habit of keeping re-usable packages for using again, the percentage of package waste in domestic waste is lower than the other countries. Even we have the tendency of becoming a metropolitian Society, our habits come from our ancestors, are familiar to re-use.

Works for collection separately, sorting and re-cycling of package wastes have been started in 2011 and they go on. Depending on our Package Waste Management Plan prepared in 2015, our Pilot-Zone Works will be started in 2016, trainings will be given and Pilot-Zone Works will be completed in 2018.

Target of our Works is reclamation of %30 percentage of %66 percentage of package waste in domestic waste.